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Ejection of the massive Hydrogen-rich envelope timed with the collapse of the stripped SN2014C

Margutti, Raffaella and Kamble, A. and Milisavljevic, D. and Zapartas, E. and de Mink, S. E. and Drout, M. and Chornock, R. and Risaliti, G. and Zauderer, B. A. and Bietenholz, M. and Cantiello, M. and Chakraborti, S. and Chomiuk, L. and Fong, W. and Grefenstette, B. and Guidorzi, C. and Kirshner, R. P. and Parrent, J. T. and Patnaude, D. and Soderberg, A. M. and Gehrels, N. C. and Harrison, F. (2017) Ejection of the massive Hydrogen-rich envelope timed with the collapse of the stripped SN2014C. Astrophysical Journal, 835 (2). Art. No. 140. ISSN 1538-4357. PMCID PMC5495200.

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We present multi-wavelength observations of SN 2014C during the first 500 days. These observations represent the first solid detection of a young extragalactic stripped-envelope SN out to high-energy X-rays ~40 keV. SN 2014C shows ordinary explosion parameters (Ek ~ 1.8 × 10^(51) erg and M_(ej) ~ 1.7 M⊙). However, over an ~1 year timescale, SN 2014C evolved from an ordinary hydrogen-poor supernova into a strongly interacting, hydrogen-rich supernova, violating the traditional classification scheme of type-I versus type-II SNe. Signatures of the SN shock interaction with a dense medium are observed across the spectrum, from radio to hard X-rays, and revealed the presence of a massive shell of ~1 M⊙ of hydrogen-rich material at ~6 × 10^(16) cm. The shell was ejected by the progenitor star in the decades to centuries before collapse. This result challenges current theories of massive star evolution, as it requires a physical mechanism responsible for the ejection of the deepest hydrogen layer of H-poor SN progenitors synchronized with the onset of stellar collapse. Theoretical investigations point at binary interactions and/or instabilities during the last nuclear burning stages as potential triggers of the highly time-dependent mass loss. We constrain these scenarios utilizing the sample of 183 SNe Ib/c with public radio observations. Our analysis identifies SN 2014C-like signatures in ~10% of SNe. This fraction is reasonably consistent with the expectation from the theory of recent envelope ejection due to binary evolution if the ejected material can survive in the close environment for 10^3–10^4 years. Alternatively, nuclear burning instabilities extending to core C-burning might play a critical role.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper CentralArticle
Margutti, Raffaella0000-0003-4768-7586
Kamble, A.0000-0003-0861-5168
Milisavljevic, D.0000-0002-0763-3885
de Mink, S. E.0000-0001-9336-2825
Drout, M.0000-0001-7081-0082
Chornock, R.0000-0002-7706-5668
Zauderer, B. A.0000-0003-1152-518X
Cantiello, M.0000-0002-8171-8596
Chomiuk, L.0000-0002-8400-3705
Fong, W.0000-0002-7374-935X
Grefenstette, B.0000-0002-1984-2932
Guidorzi, C.0000-0001-6869-0835
Kirshner, R. P.0000-0002-1966-3942
Harrison, F.0000-0003-2992-8024
Additional Information:© 2017 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2016 January 20; revised 2016 December 18; accepted 2016 December 20; published 2017 January 24. We are indebted to David Arnett, Chris Kochanek, Ori Fox, Avishy Gal-Yam, Chris Matzner, Maryam Modjaz, Andrea Pastorello, Jeff Silverman, Nathan Smith, Kris Stanek, and Noam Soker for their insightful comments and suggestions. R.M. acknowledges generous support from the James Arthur Fellowship at NYU. S.d.M. acknowledges support by a Marie Sklodowska-Curie Reintegration Fellowship (H2020 MSCA-IF-2014, project id 661502). M.Z. acknowledges support by the Netherlands Research School for Astronomy (NOVA). The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. The scientific results reported in this article are based on observations made by the Chandra X-ray Observatory under programs GO 15500831 and DDT 15508491. This work was partially supported under NASA No. NNX15AV38G, and made use of data from the Nuclear Spectroscopic Array (NuSTAR) mission, a project led by Caltech, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This work was supported in part by National Science Foundation Grant No. PHYS-1066293 and the hospitality of the Aspen Center for Physics. We thank the Chandra, NuSTAR, and Swift teams for support with the execution of the observations.
Group:Space Radiation Laboratory, NuSTAR, Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
James Arthur FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Marie Curie FellowshipH2020-MSCA-IF-2014
Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor de Astronomie (NOVA)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:supernovae: individual (SN 2014C)
Other Numbering System:
Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
Space Radiation Laboratory2016-24
Issue or Number:2
PubMed Central ID:PMC5495200
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160127-094616076
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Raffaella Margutti et al 2017 ApJ 835 140
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:64004
Deposited By: Joy Painter
Deposited On:27 Jan 2016 18:32
Last Modified:21 Apr 2020 16:42

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