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Luminous blue variables: An imaging perspective on their binarity and near environment

Martayan, Christophe and Lobel, Alex and Baade, Dietrich and Mehner, Andrea and Rivinius, Thomas and Boffin, Henri M. J. and Girard, Julien and Mawet, Dimitri and Montagnier, Guillaume and Blomme, Ronny and Kervella, Pierre and Sana, Hugues and Štefl, Stanislav and Zorec, Juan and Lacour, Sylvestre and Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste and Martins, Fabrice and Mérand, Antoine and Patru, Fabien and Selman, Fernando and Frémat, Yves (2016) Luminous blue variables: An imaging perspective on their binarity and near environment. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 587 . Art. No. A115. ISSN 0004-6361. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160127-121514330

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Abstract

Luminous blue variables (LBVs) are rare massive stars with very high luminosity. They are characterized by strong photo-metric and spectroscopic variability related to transient eruptions. The mechanisms at the origin of these eruptions is not well known. In addition, their formation is still problematic and the presence of a companion could help to explain how they form. Aims. This article presents a study of seven LBVs (about 20% of the known Galactic population), some Wolf-Rayet stars, and massive binaries. We probe the environments that surround these massive stars with near-, mid-, and far-infrared images, investigating potential nebula/shells and the companion stars. Methods. To investigate large spatial scales, we used seeing-limited and near diffraction-limited adaptive optics images to obtain a differential diagnostic on the presence of circumstellar matter and to determine their extent. From those images, we also looked for the presence of binary companions on a wide orbit. Once a companion was detected, its gravitational binding to the central star was tested. Tests include the chance projection probability, the proper motion estimates with multi-epoch observations, flux ratio, and star separations. Results. We find that two out of seven of LBVs may have a wide orbit companion. Most of the LBVs display a large circumstellar envelope or several shells. In particular, HD168625, known for its rings, possesses several shells with possibly a large cold shell at the edge of which the rings are formed. For the first time, we have directly imaged the companion of LBV stars.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://arxiv.org/abs/1601.03542arXivDiscussion Paper
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201526578DOIArticle
http://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/full_html/2016/03/aa26578-15/aa26578-15.htmlPublisherArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Mawet, Dimitri0000-0002-8895-4735
Additional Information:© ESO 2016. Received 22 May 2015. Accepted 1 December 2015. We thank the anonymous referee and the editor Dr R. Kotak for their helpful comments that allowed us to improve the manuscript. C.M.a. is grateful to ESO for the allocation of 2 months of a temporary reassignment to the science office. A.L. acknowledges financial support of the ESA-Prodex Programme administered by the Belgian Science Policy Office. C.M.a. thanks J. Taylor for providing the Reflex prototype of the VISIR dataflow. This research has made use of the Simbad and VizieR databases maintained at the CDS, Strasbourg, France, of NASA’s Astrophysics Data System Bibliographic Services, and of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation. This research has made use of the NASA/ IPAC Infrared Science Archive, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Some of the data presented in this paper were obtained from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Support for MAST for non-HST data is provided by the NASA Office of Space Science via grant NNX13AC07G and by other grants and contracts. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, and obtained from the Hubble Legacy Archive, which is a collaboration between the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI/NASA), the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF/ESA) and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC/NRC/CSA). This publication makes use of data products from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, which is a joint project of the University of California, Los Angeles, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. This research has made use of the ESO archive. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. This research made use of data products from the Midcourse Space Experiment. Processing of the data was funded by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization with additional support from NASA Office of Space Science.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Belgian Science Policy Office (BELSPO) PRODEXUNSPECIFIED
NASA/JPL/CaltechUNSPECIFIED
NSFUNSPECIFIED
NASANAS5-26555
NASANNX13AC07G
Ballistic Missile Defense OrganizationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:stars: variables: S Doradus – stars: Wolf-Rayet – stars: imaging – binaries: general – stars: winds, outflows
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160127-121514330
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160127-121514330
Official Citation:Luminous blue variables: An imaging perspective on their binarity and near environment Christophe Martayan, Alex Lobel, Dietrich Baade, Andrea Mehner, Thomas Rivinius, Henri M. J. Boffin, Julien Girard, Dimitri Mawet, Guillaume Montagnier, Ronny Blomme, Pierre Kervella, Hugues Sana, Stanislav Štefl, Juan Zorec, Sylvestre Lacour, Jean-Baptiste Le Bouquin, Fabrice Martins, Antoine Mérand, Fabien Patru, Fernando Selman and Yves Frémat A&A, 587 (2016) A115 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201526578
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:64017
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Joy Painter
Deposited On:27 Jan 2016 21:03
Last Modified:03 May 2016 17:08

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