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Driving extreme variability: the evolving corona and evidence for jet launching in Markarian 335

Wilkins, D. R. and Gallo, L. C. (2015) Driving extreme variability: the evolving corona and evidence for jet launching in Markarian 335. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 449 (1). pp. 129-146. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stv162.

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Variations in the X-ray emission from the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy, Markarian 335, are studied on both long and short time-scales through observations made between 2006 and 2013 with XMM–Newton, Suzaku and NuSTAR. Changes in the geometry and energetics of the corona that give rise to this variability are inferred through measurements of the relativistically blurred reflection seen from the accretion disc. On long time-scales, we find that during the high-flux epochs the corona has expanded, covering the inner regions of the accretion disc out to a radius of 26 +10/−726−7+10 rg. The corona contracts to within 12r_g and 5r_g in the intermediate- and low-flux epochs, respectively. While the earlier high-flux observation made in 2006 is consistent with a corona extending over the inner part of the accretion disc, a later high-flux observation that year revealed that the X-ray source had become collimated into a vertically extended jet-like corona and suggested relativistic motion of material upwards. On short time-scales, we find that an X-ray flare during a low-flux epoch in 2013 corresponded to a reconfiguration from a slightly extended corona to one much more compact, within just 2 ∼ 3r_g of the black hole. There is evidence that during the flare itself, the spectrum softened and the corona became collimated and slightly extended vertically as if a jet-launching event was aborted. Understanding the evolution of the X-ray emitting corona may reveal the underlying mechanism by which the luminous X-ray sources in AGN are powered.

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Additional Information:© 2015 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Accepted 2015 January 21. Received 2015 January 21. In original form 2014 September 23. First published online March 17, 2015. DRW is supported by a CITA National Fellowship. This work is based on observations obtained with XMM–Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA and has also made use of data obtained from the Suzaku satellite, a collaborative mission between the space agencies of Japan (JAXA) and the USA (NASA). This work also uses observations made by the NuSTAR mission, a project led by the California Institute of Astronomy, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and funded by NASA. We thank the anonymous referees for their constructive feedback on the original manuscript.
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Canadian Institute for Theoretical AstrophysicsUNSPECIFIED
European Space Agency (ESA)UNSPECIFIED
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Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160128-132426857
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ID Code:64053
Deposited By: Joy Painter
Deposited On:28 Jan 2016 22:33
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 23:25

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