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Melting of Tonalite and Crystallization of Andesite Liquid with Excess Water to 30 Kilobars

Lambert, I. B. and Wyllie, P. J. (1974) Melting of Tonalite and Crystallization of Andesite Liquid with Excess Water to 30 Kilobars. Journal of Geology, 82 (1). pp. 88-97. ISSN 0022-1376. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160211-131404158

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Abstract

Melting relations of a finely ground, crystalline tonalite with excess water have been studied at pressures between 10 kbar and 30 kbar, to a maximum temperature of 850° C, and these data have been combined with previously published results at lower pressures and higher temperatures. The rock mineralogy of plagioclase, quartz, orthoclase, biotite, and amphibole begins to change just below 10 kbar, and by 30 kbar it is coesite, clinopyroxene, garnet, and kyanite. Runs were planned to determine the curve for the beginning of melting, but combining these with published results for andesites and andesite compositions between 1 kbar and 20 kbar permits delineation of the major features of the phase diagram through the melting interval. The solidus temperatures are: 1 kbar, 765° C; 3 kbar, 690° C; 10 kbar, 635° C; 15 kbar, 628° C; 20 kbar, 670° C; 30 kbar, 735° Orthoclase dissolves in the aqueous vapor phase between 3 kbar and 10 kbar. The quartz out-(coesite-out) phase boundary varies from about 30° to 65° above the solidus. The plagioclase-out phase boundary extends from about 2 kbar, 1,000° to the solidus near 15.5 kbar, 630° C. The liquidus phase is pyroxene up to about 10 kbar, 950° C, and amphibole from there to about 18 kbar, 950° C. Garnet is the liquidus phase at higher pressures. Biotite, stable to 800°-850° C, reacts out between 15 kbar and 17.5 kbar, with the formation of garnet and kyanite. Garnet is reluctant to nucleate, but it appears at 15 kbar and is probably stable at considerably lower pressures. The amphibole reaction boundary extends from 18.5 kbar, 950° to 21.5 kbar, 700° C, but the equilibrium phase boundary could be lower by a few kilobars at 700° according to some published work. No orthopyroxene was found in any runs. The experimental results have applications to high-grade metamorphism and the nature of the lower crust, the generation of batholiths, and the crystallization of andesite magmas rising from subduction zones.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/627938DOIArticle
http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/627938PublisherArticle
http://www.jstor.org/stable/30068628JSTORArticle
Additional Information:© 1974 University of Chicago Press. Manuscript received July 11, 1973; revised September 29, 1973. We thank the National Science Foundation for grants GA-29426 and GH-33636-MRL-Light, and P.C. Bateman and F.C. Dodge for supplying the analyzed tonalite.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFGA-29426
NSFGH-33636
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160211-131404158
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160211-131404158
Official Citation:I. B. Lambert , and P. J. Wyllie . "Melting of Tonalite and Crystallization of Andesite Liquid with Excess Water to 30 Kilobars." The Journal of Geology 1974; 82(1), 88-97. DOI: 10.1086/627938
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:64426
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:19 Feb 2016 22:24
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 09:37

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