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Neural Mechanisms Behind Identification of Leptokurtic Noise and Adaptive Behavioral Response

d'Acremont, Mathieu and Bossaerts, Peter (2016) Neural Mechanisms Behind Identification of Leptokurtic Noise and Adaptive Behavioral Response. Cerebral Cortex, 26 (4). pp. 1818-1830. ISSN 1047-3211. PMCID PMC4785960. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160216-102413528

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Abstract

Large-scale human interaction through, for example, financial markets causes ceaseless random changes in outcome variability, producing frequent and salient outliers that render the outcome distribution more peaked than the Gaussian distribution, and with longer tails. Here, we study how humans cope with this evolutionary novel leptokurtic noise, focusing on the neurobiological mechanisms that allow the brain, 1) to recognize the outliers as noise and 2) to regulate the control necessary for adaptive response. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging, while participants tracked a target whose movements were affected by leptokurtic noise. After initial overreaction and insufficient subsequent correction, participants improved performance significantly. Yet, persistently long reaction times pointed to continued need for vigilance and control. We ran a contrasting treatment where outliers reflected permanent moves of the target, as in traditional mean-shift paradigms. Importantly, outliers were equally frequent and salient. There, control was superior and reaction time was faster. We present a novel reinforcement learning model that fits observed choices better than the Bayes-optimal model. Only anterior insula discriminated between the 2 types of outliers. In both treatments, outliers initially activated an extensive bottom-up attention and belief network, followed by sustained engagement of the fronto-parietal control network.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhw013DOIArticle
http://cercor.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/4/1818PublisherArticle
http://cercor.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/4/1818/suppl/DC1PublisherSupplementary Data
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4785960/PubMed CentralArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Bossaerts, Peter0000-0003-2308-2603
Additional Information:© 2016 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This work was supported by the Ronald And Maxine Linde Institute for Economic and Management Sciences at the California Institute of Technology and through US National Science Foundation (grant SES-1061824). Funding to pay the Open Access publication charges for this article was provided by The University of Melbourne. Authors’ Contributions: M.D. helped design the study, did the statistical analysis of behavioral and imaging data, developed the Contrarian Reinforcement Learning Model, helped prepare the manuscript, and wrote the Supplementary Information. P.B. designed the study, helped with data analysis, and wrote the paper.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Ronald And Maxine Linde Institute for Economic and Management Sciences, CaltechUNSPECIFIED
NSFSES-1061824
University of MelbourneUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:anterior insula; fronto-parietal control network; leptokurtic noise; outliers; reinforcement learning
Issue or Number:4
PubMed Central ID:PMC4785960
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160216-102413528
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160216-102413528
Official Citation:Mathieu d'Acremont and Peter Bossaerts Neural Mechanisms Behind Identification of Leptokurtic Noise and Adaptive Behavioral Response Cereb. Cortex (2016) 26 (4): 1818-1830 first published online February 4, 2016 doi:10.1093/cercor/bhw013
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:64498
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:17 Feb 2016 22:31
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 09:38

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