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On Shocks Driven by High-mass Planets in Radiatively Inefficient Disks. II. Three-dimensional Global Disk Simulations

Lyra, Wladimir and Richert, Alexander J. W. and Boley, Aaron and Turner, Neal and Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark and Okuzumi, Satoshi and Flock, Mario (2016) On Shocks Driven by High-mass Planets in Radiatively Inefficient Disks. II. Three-dimensional Global Disk Simulations. Astrophysical Journal, 817 (2). Art. No. 102. ISSN 0004-637X.

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Recent high-resolution, near-infrared images of protoplanetary disks have shown that these disks often present spiral features. Spiral arms are among the structures predicted by models of disk–planet interaction and thus it is tempting to suspect that planetary perturbers are responsible for these signatures. However, such interpretation is not free of problems. The observed spirals have large pitch angles, and in at least one case (HD 100546) it appears effectively unpolarized, implying thermal emission of the order of 1000 K (465 ± 40 K at closer inspection). We have recently shown in two-dimensional models that shock dissipation in the supersonic wake of high-mass planets can lead to significant heating if the disk is sufficiently adiabatic. Here we extend this analysis to three dimensions in thermodynamically evolving disks. We use the Pencil Code in spherical coordinates for our models, with a prescription for thermal cooling based on the optical depth of the local vertical gas column. We use a 5M_J planet, and show that shocks in the region around the planet where the Lindblad resonances occur heat the gas to substantially higher temperatures than the ambient gas. The gas is accelerated vertically away from the midplane to form shock bores, and the gas falling back toward the midplane breaks up into a turbulent surf. This turbulence, although localized, has high α values, reaching 0.05 in the inner Lindblad resonance, and 0.1 in the outer one. We find evidence that the disk regions heated up by the shocks become superadiabatic, generating convection far from the planet's orbit.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Lyra, Wladimir0000-0002-3768-7542
Richert, Alexander J. W.0000-0002-9613-6863
Turner, Neal0000-0001-8292-1943
Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark0000-0003-0064-4060
Okuzumi, Satoshi0000-0002-1886-0880
Additional Information:© 2016 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2015 September 24; accepted 2015 November 12; published 2016 January 26. The simulations presented here were carried out using the Stampede cluster of the Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC) at The University of Texas at Austin through XSEDE grant TG-AST140014. M-MML was partly supported by NASA grant NNX14AJ56G and the Humboldt Foundation. We acknowledge discussions with Thayne Currie and thank the anonymous referee for helpful comments. This work was performed in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. N.J.T. was supported by grant 13-OSS13-0114 from the NASA Origins of the Solar System program.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Alexander von Humboldt FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:hydrodynamics – planet–disk interactions – planets and satellites: formation – protoplanetary disks – shock waves – turbulence
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160303-155153296
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Official Citation:Wladimir Lyra et al 2016 ApJ 817 102
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:65060
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:04 Mar 2016 17:41
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

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