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Constraints on the Binary Companion to the SN Ic 1994I Progenitor

Van Dyk, Schuyler D. and de Mink, Selma E. and Zapartas, Emmanouil (2016) Constraints on the Binary Companion to the SN Ic 1994I Progenitor. Astrophysical Journal, 818 (1). Art. No. 75. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/818/1/75.

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Core-collapse supernovae (SNe), which mark the deaths of massive stars, are among the most powerful explosions in the universe and are responsible, e.g., for a predominant synthesis of chemical elements in their host galaxies. The majority of massive stars are thought to be born in close binary systems. To date, putative binary companions to the progenitors of SNe may have been detected in only two cases, SNe 1993J and 2011dh. We report on the search for a companion of the progenitor of the Type Ic SN 1994I, long considered to have been the result of binary interaction. Twenty years after explosion, we used the Hubble Space Telescope to observe the SN site in the ultraviolet (F275W and F336W bands), resulting in deep upper limits on the expected companion: F275W > 26.1 mag and F336W > 24.7 mag. These allow us to exclude the presence of a main sequence companion with a mass ≳ 10 M_⊙. Through comparison with theoretical simulations of possible progenitor populations, we show that the upper limits to a companion detection exclude interacting binaries with semi-conservative (late Case A or early Case B) mass transfer. These limits tend to favor systems with non-conservative, late Case B mass transfer with intermediate initial orbital periods and mass ratios. The most likely mass range for a putative main sequence companion would be ~5–12 M_⊙, the upper end of which corresponds to the inferred upper detection limit.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Van Dyk, Schuyler D.0000-0001-9038-9950
de Mink, Selma E.0000-0001-9336-2825
Additional Information:© 2016 American Astronomical Society. Received 2015 September 25; accepted 2015 December 22; published 2016 February 9. We appreciate the helpful comments from the anonymous referee. The authors are also very grateful to Robert Izzard for numerous discussions and for allowing the use of his code binary_c. We are also appreciative of discussions with Maria Drout regarding the SN 1994I light and color curves, and with Sung-Chul Yoon regarding his models. This research is based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with and supported by program GO-13340. De Mink acknowledges support by a Marie Sklodowska-Curie Reintegration Fellowship (H2020-MSCA-IF-2014, project id 661502) awarded by the European Commission. Facilities: HST (WFC3, WFPC2) - .
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASANAS 5-26555
Marie Curie FellowshipH2020-MSCA-IF-2014
Subject Keywords:binaries: close; galaxies: individual (NGC 5194) ; stars: evolution; stars: massive; supernovae: individual (SN 1994I)
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160311-150247683
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Official Citation:Schuyler D. Van Dyk et al 2016 ApJ 818 75
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:65317
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:11 Mar 2016 23:28
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 23:44

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