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In Situ Visualization of Lithium Ion Intercalation into MoS_2 Single Crystals using Differential Optical Microscopy with Atomic Layer Resolution

Azhagurajan, Mukkannan and Kajita, Tetsuya and Itoh, Takashi and Kim, Youn-Geun and Itaya, Kingo (2016) In Situ Visualization of Lithium Ion Intercalation into MoS_2 Single Crystals using Differential Optical Microscopy with Atomic Layer Resolution. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 138 (10). pp. 3355-3361. ISSN 0002-7863. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160321-081806933

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Abstract

Atomic-level visualization of the intercalation of layered materials, such as metal chalcogenides, is of paramount importance in the development of high-performance batteries. In situ images of the dynamic intercalation of Li ions into MoS_2 single-crystal electrodes were acquired for the first time, under potential control, with the use of a technique combining laser confocal microscopy with differential interference microscopy. Intercalation proceeded via a distinct phase separation of lithiated and delithiated regions. The process started at the atomic steps of the first layer beneath the selvedge and progressed in a layer-by-layer fashion. The intercalated regions consisted of Li-ion channels into which the newly inserted Li ions were pushed atom-by-atom. Interlayer diffusion of Li ions was not observed. Deintercalation was also clearly imaged and was found to transpire in a layer-by-layer mode. The intercalation and deintercalation processes were chemically reversible and can be repeated many times within a few atomic layers. Extensive intercalation of Li ions disrupted the atomically flat surface of MoS_2 because of the formation of small lithiated domains that peeled off from the surface of the crystal. The current–potential curves of the intercalation and deintercalation processes were independent of the scan rate, thereby suggesting that the rate-determining step was not governed by Butler–Volmer kinetics.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.5b11849DOIArticle
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jacs.5b11849PublisherArticle
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/jacs.5b11849PublisherSupporting Information
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Kim, Youn-Geun0000-0002-5936-6520
Alternate Title:In Situ Visualization of Lithium Ion Intercalation into MoS2 Single Crystals using Differential Optical Microscopy with Atomic Layer Resolution
Additional Information:© 2016 American Chemical Society. ACS Editors' Choice. This is an open access article published under an ACS AuthorChoice License, which permits copying and redistribution of the article or any adaptations for non-commercial purposes. Received: November 12, 2015; Published: February 16, 2016. The authors acknowledge Prof. G. Sazaki (Hokkaido University), Mr. Y. Saito (Olympus), and Mr. S. Kobayashi (Olympus) for developing and improving the LCM−DIM system. The authors are grateful to Prof. M. Soriaga and Dr. J. Baricuatro (Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, United States) for their helpful suggestions and discussion of the paper. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan under Grant 20245038 and in part by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).
Group:JCAP
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)20245038
New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)UNSPECIFIED
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160321-081806933
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160321-081806933
Official Citation:In Situ Visualization of Lithium Ion Intercalation into MoS2 Single Crystals using Differential Optical Microscopy with Atomic Layer Resolution Mukkannan Azhagurajan, Tetsuya Kajita, Takashi Itoh, Youn-Geun Kim, and Kingo Itaya Journal of the American Chemical Society 2016 138 (10), 3355-3361 DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b11849
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:65505
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:22 Mar 2016 01:29
Last Modified:12 Apr 2017 18:54

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