A Caltech Library Service

Global Processes that Determine Cosmic Ray Modulation

Fisk, L. A. and Cummings, A. C. and Stone, E. C. (1998) Global Processes that Determine Cosmic Ray Modulation. Space Science Reviews, 83 (1-2). pp. 179-214. ISSN 0038-6308. doi:10.1023/A:1005074923940.

Full text is not posted in this repository. Consult Related URLs below.

Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


The global processes that determine cosmic ray modulation are reviewed. The essential elements of the theory which describes cosmic ray behavior in the heliosphere are summarized, and a series of discussions is presented which compare the expectations of this theory with observations of the spatial and temporal behavior of both galactic cosmic rays and the anomalous component; the behavior of cosmic ray electrons and ions; and the 26-day variations in cosmic rays as a function of heliographic latitude. The general conclusion is that the current theory is essentially correct. There is clear evidence, in solar minimum conditions, that the cosmic rays and the anomalous component behave as is expected from theory, with strong effects of gradient and curvature drifts. There is strong evidence of considerable latitude transport of the cosmic rays, at all energies, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. Despite the apparent success of the theory, there is no single choice for the parameters which describe cosmic ray behavior, which can account for all of the observed temporal and spatial variations, spectra, and electron vs. ion behavior.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Cummings, A. C.0000-0002-3840-7696
Stone, E. C.0000-0002-2010-5462
Additional Information:© 1998 Kluwer Academic Publishers. One of the authors (KPW) wishes to acknowledge the support of Ms. C. Nilsson in producing this report.
Group:Space Radiation Laboratory
Issue or Number:1-2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160406-113935658
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:65967
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:06 Apr 2016 21:50
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 23:51

Repository Staff Only: item control page