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Cis-regulation downstream of cell type specification: a single compact element controls the complex expression of the CyIIa gene in sea urchin embryos

Arnone, Maria I. and Martin, Ellen L. and Davidson, Eric H. (1998) Cis-regulation downstream of cell type specification: a single compact element controls the complex expression of the CyIIa gene in sea urchin embryos. Development, 125 (8). pp. 1381-1395. ISSN 0950-1991. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160412-090547427

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Abstract

CyIIa, a cytoskeletal actin gene of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, is expressed specifically though transiently in the embryonic skeletogenic and secondary mesenchyme and, later in development, is permanently activated in the hindgut and midgut. CyIIa transcription follows, and is therefore downstream of, the initial specification of these embryonic domains. A detailed functional analysis of the cis-regulatory system governing the rate and the location of CyIIa expression during development was carried out using GFP expression constructs. About 4.4 kb of CyIIa sequence including a leader intron were examined for cis-regulatory function. Distal elements scattered over several kb account for 60% of the quantitative output of the expression construct and a strong amplifier of expression is located within the leader intron. However, the complex spatial pattern of CyIIa expression is completely reproduced by a compact upstream regulatory element <450 bp in length. We found no evidence anywhere in the 4.4 kb sequence examined for negative regulators required to repress ectopic expression. The specific site that mediates CyIIa expression in the midgut in late embryos and larvae was identified. This site is the same as that necessary and sufficient for midgut expression of the Endo16 gene late in development, and was shown to bind the same transcription factor. Except for some temporal and quantitative features, the S. purpuratus expression construct is expressed accurately and specifically in the same diverse cell types when introduced into embryos of Lytechinus pictus, which belongs to a different echinoid order. No ectopic expression was observed, in contrast to the result of a similar interspecific gene transfer experiment carried out earlier on a different cytoskeletal actin gene that is expressed much earlier in development. Presentation of the set of transcription factors that activate CyIIa in the differentiated cells in which it is expressed is apparently a conserved feature of these cell types.


Item Type:Article
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http://dev.biologists.org/content/125/8/1381PublisherArticle
Additional Information:© 1998 The Company of Biologists Limited. Accepted 30 January; published on WWW 18 March 1998. We are particularly grateful to Dr Chiou-Hwa Yuh for her advice and assistance throughout this work. This paper owes much to the perspicacious and critical insights of Drs James Coffman and Chiou-Hwa Yuh and Professor Ellen Rothenberg of this Institute, who were kind enough to review it in detail for us. The research was supported by the Stowers Institute for Medical Research, and by a grant from NIH (HD-05753). E. L. M. was partially supported by a Caltech SURF fellowship.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Stowers Institute for Medical ResearchUNSPECIFIED
NIHHD-05753
Caltech Summer Undergraduate Research (SURF) fellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, CyIIa, Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), Actin, Gene regulation, Regulation
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160412-090547427
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160412-090547427
Official Citation:Cis-regulation downstream of cell type specification: a single compact element controls the complex expression of the CyIIa gene in sea urchin embryos M.I. Arnone, E.L. Martin, E.H. Davidson Development 1998 125: 1381-1395
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:66073
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:12 Apr 2016 17:12
Last Modified:12 Apr 2016 22:49

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