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Radio Emission from Supernovae

Weiler, Kurt W. and Panagia, Nino and Sramek, Richard A. and Van Dyk, Schuyler D. and Williams, Christopher L. and Stockdale, Christopher J. and Kelley, Matthew T. (2007) Radio Emission from Supernovae. In: Supemova 1987A: 20 Years After. AIP Conference Proceedings. No.937. American Institute of Physics , Melville, NY, pp. 256-263. ISBN 978‐0‐7354‐0448‐9.

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Study of radio supernovae over the past 27 years includes more than three dozen detected objects and more than 150 upper limits. From this work it is possible to identify classes of radio properties, demonstrate conformance to and deviations from existing models, estimate the density and structure of the circumstellar material and, by inference, the evolution of the presupernova stellar wind, and reveal the last stages of stellar evolution before explosion. It is also possible to detect ionized hydrogen along the line of sight, to demonstrate binary properties of the presupernova stellar system, and to detect clumpiness of the circumstellar material. Along with reviewing these general properties of the radio emission from supernovae, we present our extensive observations of the radio emission from supernova (SN) 1993J in M 81 (NGC 3031) made with the Very Large Array and other radio telescopes. The SN 1993J radio emission evolves regularly in both time and frequency, and the usual interpretation in terms of shock interaction with a circumstellar medium (CSM) formed by a pre‐supernova stellar wind describes the observations rather well considering the complexity of the phenomenon. However: 1) The highest frequency measurements at 85 – 110 GHz at early times (< 40 days) are not well fitted by the parameterization which describes the cm wavelength measurements rather well. 2) At mid‐cm wavelengths there is often deviation from the fitted radio light curves, particularly near the peak flux density, and considerable shorter term deviations in the declining portion when the emission has become optically thin. 3) At a time ∼ 3100 days after shock breakout, the decline rate of the radio emission steepens from (t^(+β))β ∼ −0.7 to β ∼ −2.7 without change in the spectral index (v^(+α); α ∼ −0.81). However, this decline is best described not as a power‐law, but as an exponential decay starting at day ∼ 3100 with an e‐folding time of ∼ 1100 days. 4) The best overall fit to all of the data is a model including both non‐thermal synchrotron self‐absorption (SSA) and a thermal free‐free absorbing (FFA) components at early times, evolving to a constant spectral index, optically thin decline rate, until a break in that decline rate at day ∼ 3100, as mentioned above. Moreover, neither a purely SSA nor a purely FFA absorbing model can provide a fit that simultaneously reproduces the light curves, the spectral index evolution, and the brightness temperature evolution.

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Van Dyk, Schuyler D.0000-0001-9038-9950
Additional Information:© 2007 American Institute of Physics. Published online 09 October 2007. We are indebted to the VLA TAC and schedulers for permitting and arranging our numerous observations over many years and to observers who have contributed data at other radio wavelengths, sometimes unpublished. KWW wishes to thank the Office of Naval Research (ONR) for the 6.1 funding supporting his research. CJS is a Cottrell Scholar of Research Corporation and work on this project has been supported by the NASA Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium. NP is Astronomer Emeritus at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) that kindly provided research facilities and partial support for this work. Additional information and data on radio supernovae can be found on and linked pages.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Office of Naval Research (ONR)UNSPECIFIED
NASA Wisconsin Space Grant ConsortiumUNSPECIFIED
Space Telescope Science InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Cottrell Scholar of Research CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:radio continuum: stars — supernovae
Series Name:AIP Conference Proceedings
Issue or Number:937
Classification Code:PACS: 97.60.Bw, 98.58.Mj
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160505-111940632
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:66689
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:05 May 2016 21:55
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 09:59

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