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A rapid burst in hotspot motion through the interaction of tectonics and deep mantle flow

Hassan, Rakib and Müller, R. Dietmar and Gurnis, Michael and Williams, Simon E. and Flament, Nicolas (2016) A rapid burst in hotspot motion through the interaction of tectonics and deep mantle flow. Nature, 533 (7602). pp. 239-242. ISSN 0028-0836. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160531-092947812

[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 1: Evolution of mean poloidal flow in the deep lower mantle) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 2: Trajectory of modelled Hawaiian plume) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Figure 1: Comparison of model LLSVPs with tomography.) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Figure 2: Evolution of mean poloidal flow) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Figure 3: Trajectory of model Hawaiian plume) - Supplemental Material
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Abstract

Volcanic hotspot tracks featuring linear progressions in the age of volcanism are typical surface expressions of plate tectonic movement on top of narrow plumes of hot material within Earth’s mantle. Seismic imaging reveals that these plumes can be of deep origin—probably rooted on thermochemical structures in the lower mantle. Although palaeomagnetic and radiometric age data suggest that mantle flow can advect plume conduits laterally, the flow dynamics underlying the formation of the sharp bend occurring only in the Hawaiian–Emperor hotspot track in the Pacific Ocean remains enigmatic. Here we present palaeogeographically constrained numerical models of thermochemical convection and demonstrate that flow in the deep lower mantle under the north Pacific was anomalously vigorous between 100 million years ago and 50 million years ago as a consequence of long-lasting subduction systems, unlike those in the south Pacific. These models show a sharp bend in the Hawaiian–Emperor hotspot track arising from the interplay of plume tilt and the lateral advection of plume sources. The different trajectories of the Hawaiian and Louisville hotspot tracks arise from asymmetric deformation of thermochemical structures under the Pacific between 100 million years ago and 50 million years ago. This asymmetric deformation waned just before the Hawaiian–Emperor bend developed, owing to flow in the deepest lower mantle associated with slab descent in the north and south Pacific.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature17422DOIArticle
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v533/n7602/full/nature17422.htmlPublisherArticle
http://rdcu.be/iD2uPublisherFree ReadCube access
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Müller, R. Dietmar0000-0002-3334-5764
Gurnis, Michael0000-0003-1704-597X
Additional Information:© 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Received 03 November 2015; Accepted 09 February 2016; Published online 11 May 2016. M.G. was supported by the NSF (awards EAR-1161046 and EAR-1247022). R.D.M. and N.F. were supported by an ARC grant (IH130200012). This research was undertaken with the assistance of resources from the National Computational Infrastructure (NCI), which is supported by the Australian Government. Author Contributions: R.H. and R.D.M. developed the concept of the study. R.H. and M.G. designed the numerical experiments and developed the technical aspects of the study. All authors contributed both intellectually and to the writing of the paper.
Group:Seismological Laboratory
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFEAR-1161046
NSFEAR-1247022
Australian Research CouncilIH130200012
Australian GovernmentUNSPECIFIED
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160531-092947812
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160531-092947812
Official Citation:A rapid burst in hotspot motion through the interaction of tectonics and deep mantle flow Rakib Hassan, R. Dietmar Müller, Michael Gurnis, Simon E. Williams & Nicolas Flament Nature 533, 239–242 (12 May 2016) doi:10.1038/nature17422
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:67483
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:31 May 2016 17:13
Last Modified:24 Oct 2017 19:48

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