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Chemical Characterization of Fine Particle Emissions from the Fireplace Combustion of Woods Grown in the Southern United States

Fine, Philip M. and Cass, Glen R. and Simoneit, Bernd R. T. (2002) Chemical Characterization of Fine Particle Emissions from the Fireplace Combustion of Woods Grown in the Southern United States. Environmental Science and Technology, 36 (7). pp. 1442-1451. ISSN 0013-936X. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160607-135156595

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Abstract

The fireplace combustion of wood is a significant and largely unregulated source of fine particle pollution in the United States. Source apportionment techniques that use particulate organic compounds as tracers have been successful in determining the contribution of wood smoke to ambient fine particle levels in specific areas in California. To apply these techniques to the rest of the United States, the differences in emissions profiles between different wood smoke sources and fuel types should be resolved. To this end, a series of fireplace source tests was conducted on six fuel wood species found in the Southern United States to determine fine particulate emission factors for total mass, ionic and elemental species, elemental and organic carbon, and over 250 individual organic compounds. The wood species tested, chosen for their high abundance and availability in the Southern U.S. region, were yellow poplar, white ash, sweetgum, mockernut hickory, loblolly pine, and slash pine. The differences in the emissions of compounds such as substituted phenols and resin acids help to distinguish between the smoke from hardwood and softwood combustion. Levoglucosan, a cellulose pyrolysis product which may serve as a tracer for wood smoke in general, was quantified in the emissions from all the wood species burned. The furofuran lignan, yangambin, which was emitted in significant quantities from yellow poplar combustion and not detected in any of the other North American wood smokes, is a potential species-specific molecular tracer which may be useful in qualitatively identifying particulate emissions from a specific geographical area where yellow poplar is being burned.


Item Type:Article
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es0108988DOIArticle
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es0108988PublisherArticle
Additional Information:© 2002 American Chemical Society. Received for review April 28, 2001. Revised manuscript received January 16, 2002. Accepted January 22, 2002. The authors would like to thank Brian King, Steve Dutton, Paul Mayo, and Dawn Fine for their assistance in conducting the source tests. Further thanks to Faurice Bowden, Joshua Meurer at Meurer Tree Service, Southern Fuelwood, and Ron Severs at Cloquet Forestry Center for their help in acquiring the appropriate wood samples for testing. Lynn Salmon at Caltech conducted the ion chromatography and EC/OC analyses; Cliff Frazier and Judy Chow at the Desert Research Institute made the trace elements determinations by XRF. Financial support for this research was provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under EPA Grant R826233-01-0 (California Institute of Technology).
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)R826233-01-0
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160607-135156595
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160607-135156595
Official Citation:Chemical Characterization of Fine Particle Emissions from the Fireplace Combustion of Woods Grown in the Southern United States Philip M. Fine, Glen R. Cass, and Bernd R. T. Simoneit Environmental Science & Technology 2002 36 (7), 1442-1451 DOI: 10.1021/es0108988
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:67742
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:08 Jun 2016 14:32
Last Modified:08 Jun 2016 14:32

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