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Allergens in Paved Road Dust and Airborne Particles

Miguel, Ann G. and Cass, Glen R. and Glovsky, M. Michael and Weiss, Jay (1999) Allergens in Paved Road Dust and Airborne Particles. Environmental Science and Technology, 33 (23). pp. 4159-4168. ISSN 0013-936X. doi:10.1021/es9904890.

[img] PDF (Mass size distribution of the resuspended and size-classified paved road dust source samples (Figure S1) and chemical composition of the TSP, PM_(10), and PM_2 components of size-fractionated paved road dust source samples (Table S1)) - Supplemental Material
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Paved road dust present on the surface of streets in Southern California consists of a complex mixture of soil dust, deposited motor vehicle exhaust particles, tire dust, brake lining wear dust, plant fragments, and other biological materials. The research presented here shows that allergens from at least 20 different source materials are found in the paved road dust. These include pollens and pollen fragments, animal dander, and molds. When paved road dust is resuspended into the atmosphere by passing vehicle traffic, allergen concentrations in the air are increased above the levels that would prevail without the vehicle traffic. Using immunological assays that measure the proteins extracted from environmental samples that bind to IgE antibodies present in the blood serum of allergenic patients, it is possible to measure the allergen concentrations present in paved road dust and in airborne particle samples. Total protein contributions to monthly average airborne TSP and PM_(10) concentrations are found to be in the range from 1 to 5.8 μg m^(-3), potentially accounting for a significant fraction of the airborne particulate organic material that has not been identified to date by GC/MS techniques. Results show that up to 5−12% of the allergenicity of atmospheric total suspended particulate matter samples at Long Beach and Rubidoux, CA, is attributable to paved road dust emissions. In an industrial area of urban central Los Angeles where there is less proximity to vegetation and domestic activities, the paved road dust contribution to airborne allergen concentrations is lower, accounting for approximately 0.5% of the total allergenic activity of the atmospheric particle samples. In conclusion, paved road dust when entrained into the atmosphere by passing traffic is a source of allergen exposure for the general population and could be more important in areas with more abundant vegetation or with closer proximity of populations to major highways than is the case for the Southern California air monitoring sites studied here.

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Additional Information:© 1999 American Chemical Society. Received for review April 27, 1999. Revised manuscript received September 2, 1999. Accepted September 14, 1999. We thank Christos Christoforou for helping with the collection of paved road dust samples and Solomon Teffera, Steve Barbosa, Alicia Diaz, and George Diaz of the South Coast Air Quality Management District for acquisition and organization of the airborne particulate samples. We are grateful to Mike Kleeman, Jamie Schauer, Paul Mayo, Lynn Salmon, and Peter Green of Caltech for advice and assistance in particle size fractionation and inorganic ion analyses, to the staff at the Desert Research Institute for the XRF analyses, to Bob Cary at Sunset Laboratories for EC/OC analyses, and to Zeb Dyer at the Santa Barbara Medical Foundation Clinic for examination of the paved road dust samples by optical microscopy to confirm the presence of molds and pollen grains. We also thank Manny Odontis and Ercan Unver of Diagnostic Products Company for advice and support during the blotting analysis. This work was supported by agreement 95-312 from the California Air Resources Board and by the South Coast Air Quality Management District.
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California Air Resources Board95-312
South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD)UNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:23
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160608-121339175
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Official Citation:Allergens in Paved Road Dust and Airborne Particles Ann G. Miguel, Glen R. Cass, M. Michael Glovsky, and Jay Weiss Environmental Science & Technology 1999 33 (23), 4159-4168 DOI: 10.1021/es9904890
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:67779
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:08 Jun 2016 19:46
Last Modified:11 Nov 2021 03:54

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