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Deeper penetration of large earthquakes on seismically quiescent faults

Jiang, Junle and Lapusta, Nadia (2016) Deeper penetration of large earthquakes on seismically quiescent faults. Science, 352 (6291). pp. 1293-1297. ISSN 0036-8075. doi:10.1126/science.aaf1496.

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Why many major strike-slip faults known to have had large earthquakes are silent in the interseismic period is a long-standing enigma. One would expect small earthquakes to occur at least at the bottom of the seismogenic zone, where deeper aseismic deformation concentrates loading. We suggest that the absence of such concentrated microseismicity indicates deep rupture past the seismogenic zone in previous large earthquakes. We support this conclusion with numerical simulations of fault behavior and observations of recent major events. Our modeling implies that the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake on the San Andreas Fault in Southern California penetrated below the seismogenic zone by at least 3 to 5 kilometers. Our findings suggest that such deeper ruptures may occur on other major fault segments, potentially increasing the associated seismic hazard.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Materials
Jiang, Junle0000-0002-8796-5846
Lapusta, Nadia0000-0001-6558-0323
Additional Information:© 2016 American Association for the Advancement of Science. Received 27 December 2015; accepted 11 May 2016. This study was supported by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (grant G14AP00033), the National Science Foundation (NSF) (grants EAR 1142183 and 1520907), and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC, funded by NSF cooperative agreement EAR-0529922 and USGS Cooperative agreement 07HQAG0008). This is SCEC contribution no. 6139. Numerical simulations for this study were carried out on the CITerra Dell cluster at the Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences of the California Institute of Technology. We thank J.-P. Ampuero, J.-P. Avouac, E. Hauksson, and M. Simons for helpful discussions and comments on the manuscript. Earthquake catalogs and fault-slip models are compiled from published literature and publicly available sources. Numerical data are available from the authors upon request.
Group:Seismological Laboratory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFEAR 1142183
NSFEAR 1520907
Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC)UNSPECIFIED
Other Numbering System:
Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC)6139
Issue or Number:6291
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160613-091714645
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Official Citation:Deeper penetration of large earthquakes on seismically quiescent faults By Junle Jiang, Nadia Lapusta Science 10 Jun 2016: Vol. 352, Issue 6291, pp. 1293-1297 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf1496
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:67863
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:14 Jun 2016 21:45
Last Modified:11 Nov 2021 03:55

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