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Labeling Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Gold Nanocages forin vitroandin vivoTracking by Two-Photon Microscopy and Photoacoustic Microscopy

Zhang, Yu Shrike and Wang, Yu and Wang, Lidai and Wang, Yucai and Cai, Xin and Zhang, Chi and Wang, Lihong V. and Xia, Younan (2013) Labeling Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Gold Nanocages forin vitroandin vivoTracking by Two-Photon Microscopy and Photoacoustic Microscopy. Theranostics, 3 (8). pp. 532-543. ISSN 1838-7640. PMCID PMC3741603.

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Stem cell tracking is a highly important subject. Current techniques based on nanoparticle-labeling, such as magnetic resonance imaging, fluorescence microscopy, and micro-computed tomography, are plagued by limitations including relatively low sensitivity or penetration depth, involvement of ionizing irradiation, and potential cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles. Here we introduce a new class of contrast agents based on gold nanocages (AuNCs) with hollow interiors and porous walls to label human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) for both in vitro and in vivo tracking using two-photon microscopy and photoacoustic microscopy. As demonstrated by the viability assay, the AuNCs showed negligible cytotoxicity under a reasonable dose, and did not alter the differentiation potential of the hMSCs into desired lineages. We were able to image the cells labeled with AuNCs in vitro for at least 28 days in culture, as well as to track the cells that homed to the tumor region in nude mice in vivo.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription CentralArticle
Wang, Lihong V.0000-0001-9783-4383
Additional Information:© 2013 Ivyspring International Publisher. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons License ( Reproduction is permitted for personal, noncommercial use, provided that the article is in whole, unmodified, and properly cited. Received: 2012.10.11; Accepted: 2012.11.13; Published: 2013.07.19. This work was supported in part by an NIH grant (R01 CA138527) and startup funds from Washington University in St. Louis (to Y.X.). This work was also sponsored by NIH grants (R01 EB000712, R01 EB008085, R01 CA134539, U54 CA136398, R01 CA157277, and R01 CA159959, to L.V.W.). Part of the research was performed at the Alafi Neuroimaging Laboratory of the Hope Center for Neurological Disorders, which was supported by the NIH Neuroscience Blueprint Center Core Grant P30 NS057105. We thank Arie Krumholz for his assistance with the preparation of animal protocol. Conflict of Interest: L.V.W. has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc. and Endra, Inc., which, however, did not support this work. All other authors declare no competing financial interests.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NIHR01 CA138527
Washington UniversityUNSPECIFIED
NIHR01 EB000712
NIHR01 EB008085
NIHR01 CA134539
NIHU54 CA136398
NIHR01 CA157277
NIHR01 CA159959
NIHP30 NS057105
Subject Keywords:gold nanocages, nanoparticles, human mesenchymal stem cells, U87 glioblastoma, blood vessels, stem cell therapy
PubMed Central ID:PMC3741603
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160803-125101886
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Zhang YS, Wang Y, Wang L, Wang Y, Cai X, Zhang C, Wang LV, Xia Y. Labeling Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Gold Nanocages for in vitro and in vivo Tracking by Two-Photon Microscopy and Photoacoustic Microscopy. Theranostics 2013; 3(8):532-543. doi:10.7150/thno.5369. Available from
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:69415
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:03 Aug 2016 23:55
Last Modified:03 Aug 2016 23:55

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