A Caltech Library Service

On Super-novae

Baade, W. and Zwicky, F. (1934) On Super-novae. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 20 (5). pp. 254-259. ISSN 0027-8424.

See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


The extensive investigations of extragalactic systems during recent years have brought to light the remarkable fact that there exist two well-defined types of new stars or novae which might be distinguished as common novae and super-novae. No intermediate objects have so far been observed. Common novae seem to be a rather frequent phenomenon in certain stellar systems. Thus, according to Bailey [1], ten to twenty novae flash up every year in our own Milky Way. A similar frequency (30 per year) has been found by Hubble in the well-known Andromeda nebula. A characteristic feature of these common novae is their absolute brightness (M) at maximum, which in the mean is -5.8 with a range of perhaps 3 to 4 mags. The maximum corresponds to 20,000 times the radiation of the sun. During maximum light the common novae therefore belong to the absolutely brightest stars in stellar systems. This is in full agreement with the fact that we have been able to discover this type of novae in other stellar systems near enough for us to reach stars of absolute magnitude -5 with our present optical equipment.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Additional Information:Copyright © 1934 by the National Academy of Sciences Communicated March 19, 1934
Issue or Number:5
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:BAApnas34a
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:6942
Deposited By: Archive Administrator
Deposited On:03 Jan 2007
Last Modified:02 Oct 2019 23:37

Repository Staff Only: item control page