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Galactic cold cores. VII. Filament formation and evolution: Methods and observational constraints

Rivera-Ingraham, A. and Ristorcelli, I. and Juvela, M. and Montillaud, J. and Men’shchikov, A. and Malinen, J. and Pelkonen, V.-M. and Marston, A. and Martin, P. G. and Pagani, L. and Paladini, R. and Paradis, D. and Ysard, N. and Ward-Thompson, D. and Bernard, J.-P. and Marshall, D. J. and Montier, L. and Tóth, L. V. (2016) Galactic cold cores. VII. Filament formation and evolution: Methods and observational constraints. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 591 . Art. No. A90. ISSN 0004-6361.

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Context. The association of filaments with protostellar objects has made these structures a priority target in star formation studies. However, little is known about the link between filament properties and their local environment. Aims. The datasets from the Herschel Galactic Cold cores key programme allow for a statistical study of filaments with a wide range of intrinsic and environmental characteristics. Characterisation of this sample can therefore be used to identify key physical parameters and quantify the role of the environment in the formation of supercritical filaments. These results are necessary to constrain theoretical models of filament formation and evolution. Methods. Filaments were extracted from fields at distance D< 500 pc with the getfilaments  algorithm and characterised according to their column density profiles and intrinsic properties. Each profile was fitted with a beam-convolved Plummer-like function, and the filament structure was quantified based on the relative contributions from the filament “core”, represented by a Gaussian, and “wing” component, dominated by the power-law behaviour of the Plummer-like function. These filament parameters were examined for populations associated with different background levels. Results. Filaments increase their core (M_(line,core)) and wing (M_(line,wing)) contributions while increasing their total linear mass density (M_(line,tot)). Both components appear to be linked to the local environment, with filaments in higher backgrounds having systematically more massive M_(line,core) and M_(line,wing). This dependence on the environment supports an accretion-based model of filament evolution in the local neighbourhood (D ≤ 500 pc). Structures located in the highest backgrounds develop the highest central A_V, M_(line,core), and M_(line,wing) as M_(line,tot) increases with time, favoured by the local availability of material and the enhanced gravitational potential. Our results indicate that filaments acquiring a significantly massive central region with M_(line,core) ≳ M_(crit)/2 may become supercritical and form stars. This translates into a need for filaments to become at least moderately self-gravitating to undergo localised star formation or become star-forming filaments.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Pelkonen, V.-M.0000-0002-8898-1047
Martin, P. G.0000-0002-5236-3896
Paladini, R.0000-0002-5158-243X
Ward-Thompson, D.0000-0003-1140-2761
Additional Information:© 2016 ESO. Received 6 April 2015. Accepted 29 March 2016. A.R.-I. acknowledges the French national program PCMI and CNES for the funding of her postdoc fellowship at IRAP. A.R.-I. is currently a Research Fellow at ESA/ESAC and acknowledges support from the ESA Internal Research Fellowship Programme. The authors also thank PCMI for its general support to the Galactic Cold Cores project activities. J.M. and V.-M.P. acknowledge the support of Academy of Finland grant 250741. M.J. acknowledges the support of Academy of Finland grants 250741 and 1285769, as well as the Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees (OMP) in Toulouse for its support for a two months stay at IRAP in the framework of the OMP visitor programme 2014. L.V.T. acknowledges OTKA grants NN111016 and K101393. We thank the anonymous referee for detailed comments, suggestions, and corrections that have significantly improved the content and results presented in the paper. We also thank J. Fischera, D. Arzoumanian, E. Falgarone, and P. André for useful discussions. SPIRE has been developed by a consortium of institutes led by Cardiff Univ. (UK) and including: Univ. Lethbridge (Canada); NAOC (China); CEA, LAM (France); IFSI, Univ. Padua (Italy); IAC (Spain); Stockholm Observatory (Sweden); Imperial College London, RAL, UCL-MSSL, UKATC, Univ. Sussex (UK); and Caltech, JPL, NHSC, Univ. Colorado (USA). This development has been supported by national funding agencies: CSA (Canada); NAOC (China); CEA, CNES, CNRS (France); ASI (Italy); MCINN (Spain); SNSB (Sweden); STFC, UKSA (UK); and NASA (USA). PACS has been developed by a consortium of institutes led by MPE (Germany) and including UVIE (Austria); KU Leuven, CSL, IMEC (Belgium); CEA, LAM (France); MPIA (Germany); INAF-IFSI/OAA/OAP/OAT, LENS, SISSA (Italy); IAC (Spain). This development has been supported by the funding agencies BMVIT (Austria), ESA-PRODEX (Belgium), CEA/CNES (France), DLR (Germany), ASI/INAF (Italy), and CICYT/MCYT (Spain).
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Programme National de Physique et Chimie du Milieu Interstellaire (PCMI)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
European Space Agency (ESA)UNSPECIFIED
Academy of Finland250741
Academy of Finland1285769
Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees (OMP)UNSPECIFIED
Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA)NN111016
Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA)K101393
Canadian Space Agency (CSA)UNSPECIFIED
National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC)UNSPECIFIED
Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)UNSPECIFIED
Swedish National Space Board (SNSB)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA)UNSPECIFIED
Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie (BMVIT)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)UNSPECIFIED
Comisión Interministerial de Ciencia y Tecnología (CICYT)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:ISM: clouds, infrared: ISM, submillimeter: ISM, dust, extinction – stars: formation
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160804-131411310
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Official Citation:Galactic cold cores - VII. Filament formation and evolution: Methods and observational constraints A. Rivera-Ingraham, I. Ristorcelli, M. Juvela, J. Montillaud, A. Men’shchikov, J. Malinen, V.-M. Pelkonen, A. Marston, P. G. Martin, L. Pagani, R. Paladini, D. Paradis, N. Ysard, D. Ward-Thompson, J.-P. Bernard, D. J. Marshall, L. Montier and L. V. Tóth A&A, 591 (2016) A90 DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:69448
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:05 Aug 2016 17:51
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

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