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Retrieval of Precise Radial Velocities from Near-infrared High-resolution Spectra of Low-mass Stars

Gao, Peter and Plavchan, P. and Gagné, J. and Furlan, E. and Bottom, M. and Anglada-Escudé, G. and White, R. and Davison, C. L. and Beichman, C. and Brinkworth, C. and Johnson, J. and Ciardi, D. and Wallace, K. and Mennesson, B. and von Braun, K. and Vasisht, G. and Prato, L. and Kane, S. R. and Tanner, A. and Crawford, T. J. and Latham, D. and Rougeot, R. and Geneser, C. S. and Catanzarite, J. (2016) Retrieval of Precise Radial Velocities from Near-infrared High-resolution Spectra of Low-mass Stars. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 128 (968). Art. No. 104501. ISSN 0004-6280. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160812-103134550

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Abstract

Given that low-mass stars have intrinsically low luminosities at optical wavelengths and a propensity for stellar activity, it is advantageous for radial velocity (RV) surveys of these objects to use near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. In this work, we describe and test a novel RV extraction pipeline dedicated to retrieving RVs from low-mass stars using NIR spectra taken by the CSHELL spectrograph at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, where a methane isotopologue gas cell is used for wavelength calibration. The pipeline minimizes the residuals between the observations and a spectral model composed of templates for the target star, the gas cell, and atmospheric telluric absorption; models of the line-spread function, continuum curvature, and sinusoidal fringing; and a parameterization of the wavelength solution. The stellar template is derived iteratively from the science observations themselves without a need for separate observations dedicated to retrieving it. Despite limitations from CSHELL's narrow wavelength range and instrumental systematics, we are able to (1) obtain an RV precision of 35 m s^(−1) for the RV standard star GJ 15 A over a time baseline of 817 days, reaching the photon noise limit for our attained signal-to-noise ratio; (2) achieve ~3 m s^(−1) RV precision for the M giant SV Peg over a baseline of several days and confirm its long-term RV trend due to stellar pulsations, as well as obtain nightly noise floors of ~2–6 m s^(−1); and (3) show that our data are consistent with the known masses, periods, and orbital eccentricities of the two most massive planets orbiting GJ 876. Future applications of our pipeline to RV surveys using the next generation of NIR spectrographs, such as iSHELL, will enable the potential detection of super-Earths and mini-Neptunes in the habitable zones of M dwarfs.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1538-3873/128/968/104501DOIArticle
http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1538-3873/128/968/104501PublisherArticle
http://arxiv.org/abs/1603.05997arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Gao, Peter0000-0002-8518-9601
Plavchan, P.0000-0002-8864-1667
Gagné, J.0000-0002-2592-9612
Furlan, E.0000-0001-9800-6248
Bottom, M.0000-0003-1341-5531
Anglada-Escudé, G.0000-0002-3645-5977
Beichman, C.0000-0002-5627-5471
Johnson, J.0000-0001-9808-7172
Ciardi, D.0000-0002-5741-3047
Mennesson, B.0000-0003-4205-4800
von Braun, K.0000-0002-5823-4630
Vasisht, G.0000-0002-1871-6264
Kane, S. R.0000-0002-7084-0529
Tanner, A.0000-0002-2903-2140
Latham, D.0000-0001-9911-7388
Additional Information:© 2016. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Received 2015 November 16; accepted 2016 March 18; published 2016 August 12. We thank K. Sung, S. Crawford, B. Drouin, E. Garcia-Berrios, N.S. Lewis, S. Mills, and S. Lin for their effort in the building and setting up of the methane isotopologue gas cell. We thank B. Walp for his help with data collection at NASA IRTF. We thank J. Rayner, L. Bergknut, B. Bus, and the telescope operators at NASA IRTF for their help throughout this project. This work uses observations obtained at NASA IRTF through program numbers 2010B022, 2011A083, 2011B083, and 2012B021. This work was supported in part by a JPL Research and Technology Development Grant and the JPL Center for Exoplanet Science. Additional support includes the Venus Express program via NASA NNX10AP80G grant to the California Institute of Technology, and an NAI Virtual Planetary Laboratory grant from the University of Washington to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology under solicitation NNH12ZDA002C and cooperative agreement number NNA13AA93A. The authors recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Mauna Kea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASANNX10AP80G
University of WashingtonUNSPECIFIED
NASANNH12ZDA002C
NASANNA13AA93A
Subject Keywords:methods: data analysis planets and satellites: detection techniques: radial velocities
Issue or Number:968
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160812-103134550
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160812-103134550
Official Citation:Peter Gao et al 2016 PASP 128 104501
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:69588
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:12 Aug 2016 21:58
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:18

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