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Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces

Huang, Yao-Wei and Lee, Ho Wai Howard and Sokhoyan, Ruzan and Pala, Ragip A. and Thyagarajan, Krishnan and Han, Seunghoon and Tsai, Din Ping and Atwater, Harry A. (2016) Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces. Nano Letters, 16 (9). pp. 5319-5325. ISSN 1530-6984. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b00555.

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Metasurfaces composed of planar arrays of subwavelength artificial structures show promise for extraordinary light manipulation. They have yielded novel ultrathin optical components such as flat lenses, wave plates, holographic surfaces, and orbital angular momentum manipulation and detection over a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum. However, the optical properties of metasurfaces developed to date do not allow for versatile tunability of reflected or transmitted wave amplitude and phase after their fabrication, thus limiting their use in a wide range of applications. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a gate-tunable metasurface that enables dynamic electrical control of the phase and amplitude of the plane wave reflected from the metasurface. Tunability arises from field-effect modulation of the complex refractive index of conducting oxide layers incorporated into metasurface antenna elements which are configured in reflectarray geometry. We measure a phase shift of 180° and ∼30% change in the reflectance by applying 2.5 V gate bias. Additionally, we demonstrate modulation at frequencies exceeding 10 MHz and electrical switching of ±1 order diffracted beams by electrical control over subgroups of metasurface elements, a basic requirement for electrically tunable beam-steering phased array metasurfaces. In principle, electrically gated phase and amplitude control allows for electrical addressability of individual metasurface elements and opens the path to applications in ultrathin optical components for imaging and sensing technologies, such as reconfigurable beam steering devices, dynamic holograms, tunable ultrathin lenses, nanoprojectors, and nanoscale spatial light modulators.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Information Paper
Sokhoyan, Ruzan0000-0003-4599-6350
Tsai, Din Ping0000-0002-0883-9906
Atwater, Harry A.0000-0001-9435-0201
Additional Information:© 2016 American Chemical Society. Received: February 7, 2016. Revised: August 6, 2016. This work was supported by Samsung Electronics and by the Hybrid Nanophotonics Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative Grant (Air Force Office of Scientific Research, FA9550-12-1-0024). The conducting oxide material synthesis design and characterization was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science grant DEFG02-07ER46405 (K.T. and H.A.A.) and used facilities supported by the Kavli Nanoscience Institute (KNI) and Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) at Caltech. Y.W.H. and D.P.T. acknowledge the support from Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (Grants 103-2911-I-002-594, 104-2745-M-002-003-ASP, and 105-2745-002-002-ASP) and Academia Sinica (Grant AS-103-TP-A06). K.T. acknowledges funding from the Swiss National Science Foundation (Grant 151853). The authors would like to thank Rui Liu for Al2O3 deposition and Katherine Fountaine for useful discussions. Author Contributions: (Y.W.H. and H.W.H.L.) contributed equally to this work. Y.W.H., H.W.H.L., R.S., and H.A.A. designed and conceived the experiments. Y.W.H. and H.W.H.L. fabricated the samples. Y.W.H., H.W.H.L., and R.A.P developed the measurement setup and performed the experiments. Y.W.H., H.W.H.L., and K.T. performed materials characterizations. Y.W.H. and R.S. performed numerical simulations. Y.W.H., H.W.H.L., R.S., R.A.P., K.T., S.H., and H.A.A. wrote the paper. All authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript. The authors declare no competing financial interest.
Group:Kavli Nanoscience Institute, JCAP
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Samsung ElectronicsUNSPECIFIED
Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR)FA9550-12-1-0024
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-FG02-07ER46405
Kavli Nanoscience InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Joint Center for Artificial PhotosynthesisUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)103-2911-I-002-594
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)104-2745-M-002-003-ASP
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)105-2745-002-002-ASP
Academia SinicaAS-103-TP-A06
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)151853
Subject Keywords:Metasurfaces, transparent conducting oxides, field-effect modulation, phase modulation, epsilon-near-zero materials, plasmonics, modulators, beam steering
Issue or Number:9
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160907-142523365
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Official Citation:Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces Yao-Wei Huang, Ho Wai Howard Lee, Ruzan Sokhoyan, Ragip A. Pala, Krishnan Thyagarajan, Seunghoon Han, Din Ping Tsai, and Harry A. Atwater Nano Letters 2016 16 (9), 5319-5325 DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b00555
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:70196
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:08 Sep 2016 16:29
Last Modified:11 Nov 2021 04:25

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