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Radial velocity planet detection biases at the stellar rotational period

Vanderburg, Andrew and Plavchan, Peter and Johnson, John Asher and Ciardi, David R. and Swift, Jonathan J. and Kane, Stephen R. (2016) Radial velocity planet detection biases at the stellar rotational period. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 459 (4). pp. 3565-3573. ISSN 0035-8711.

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Future generations of precise radial velocity (RV) surveys aim to achieve sensitivity sufficient to detect Earth mass planets orbiting in their stars’ habitable zones. A major obstacle to this goal is astrophysical radial velocity noise caused by active areas moving across the stellar limb as a star rotates. In this paper, we quantify how stellar activity impacts exoplanet detection with radial velocities as a function of orbital and stellar rotational periods. We perform data-driven simulations of how stellar rotation affects planet detectability and compile and present relations for the typical timescale and amplitude of stellar radial velocity noise as a function of stellar mass. We show that the characteristic timescales of quasi-periodic radial velocity jitter from stellar rotational modulations coincides with the orbital period of habitable zone exoplanets around early M-dwarfs. These coincident periods underscore the importance of monitoring the targets of RV habitable zone planet surveys through simultaneous photometric measurements for determining rotation periods and activity signals, and mitigating activity signals using spectroscopic indicators and/or RV measurements at different wavelengths.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Vanderburg, Andrew0000-0001-7246-5438
Plavchan, Peter0000-0002-8864-1667
Johnson, John Asher0000-0001-9808-7172
Ciardi, David R.0000-0002-5741-3047
Swift, Jonathan J.0000-0002-9486-818X
Kane, Stephen R.0000-0002-7084-0529
Additional Information:© 2016 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Accepted 2016 April 11. Received 2016 April 11; in original form 2016 January 21. We are grateful to Howard Isaacson and Amy McQuillan for helpful advice. We thank Juliette Becker, Thayne Currie, Jonathan Gagné, Peter Gao, and Angelle Tanner for their helpful comments on an early draft of the manuscript. We thank the referee, Suzanne Aigrain, for a thoughtful and detailed report which significantly improved this work. This research has made use of NASA's Astrophysics Data System, the SIMBAD data base, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France, as well as the NASA Exoplanet Archive, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. AV is supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, Grant No. DGE 1144152. JAJ is supported by generous grants from the David and Lucille Packard Foundation and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1144152
David and Lucille Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:planets and satellites: detection techniques: radial velocities
Issue or Number:4
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160912-074538405
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Andrew Vanderburg, Peter Plavchan, John Asher Johnson, David R. Ciardi, Jonathan Swift, and Stephen R. Kane Radial velocity planet detection biases at the stellar rotational period MNRAS (July 11, 2016) Vol. 459 3565-3573 doi:10.1093/mnras/stw863 first published online April 14, 2016
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:70261
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:12 Sep 2016 19:38
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:18

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