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Agricultural fires in the southeastern U.S. during SEAC^4RS: Emissions of trace gases and particles and evolution of ozone, reactive nitrogen, and organic aerosol

Liu, Xiaoxi and St. Clair, J. M. and Crounse, J. D. and Wennberg, P. O. (2016) Agricultural fires in the southeastern U.S. during SEAC^4RS: Emissions of trace gases and particles and evolution of ozone, reactive nitrogen, and organic aerosol. Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres, 121 (12). pp. 7383-7414. ISSN 2169-897X. doi:10.1002/2016JD025040. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160912-094736849

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Abstract

Emissions from 15 agricultural fires in the southeastern U.S. were measured from the NASA DC-8 research aircraft during the summer 2013 Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC^4RS) campaign. This study reports a detailed set of emission factors (EFs) for 25 trace gases and 6 fine particle species. The chemical evolution of the primary emissions in seven plumes was examined in detail for ~1.2 h. A Lagrangian plume cross-section model was used to simulate the evolution of ozone (O_3), reactive nitrogen species, and organic aerosol (OA). Observed EFs are generally consistent with previous measurements of crop residue burning, but the fires studied here emitted high amounts of SO_2 and fine particles, especially primary OA and chloride. Filter-based measurements of aerosol light absorption implied that brown carbon (BrC) was ubiquitous in the plumes. In aged plumes, rapid production of O_3, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), and nitrate was observed with ΔO_3/ΔCO, ΔPAN/ΔNO_y, and Δnitrate/ΔNO_y reaching ~0.1, ~0.3, and ~0.3. For five selected cases, the model reasonably simulated O_3 formation but underestimated PAN formation. No significant evolution of OA mass or BrC absorption was observed. However, a consistent increase in oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) ratios of OA indicated that OA oxidation in the agricultural fire plumes was much faster than in urban and forest fire plumes. Finally, total annual SO_2, NO_x, and CO emissions from agricultural fires in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Missouri were estimated (within a factor of ~2) to be equivalent to ~2% SO_2 from coal combustion and ~1% NO_x and ~9% CO from mobile sources.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2016JD025040DOIArticle
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1002/2016JD025040/abstractPublisherArticle
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1002/2016JD025040/suppinfoPublisherSupporting Information
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Liu, Xiaoxi0000-0002-5104-8886
St. Clair, J. M.0000-0002-9367-5749
Crounse, J. D.0000-0001-5443-729X
Wennberg, P. O.0000-0002-6126-3854
Additional Information:© 2016 American Geophysical Union. Received 4 Mar 2016. Accepted 25 May 2016. Accepted article online 28 May 2016. Published online 22 Jun 2016. This work was supported by NASA grant NNX12AB77G. R. Yokelson was supported by NASA Earth Science Division Awards NNX12AC20G and NNX14AP45G. PTR-MS measurements during SEAC^4RS were supported by the Austrian Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology (bmvit) through the Austrian Space Applications Programme (ASAP) of the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG). A.W. and T.M. received support from the Visiting Scientist Program at the National Institute of Aerospace (NIA). P.C.J., D.A.D., and J.L.J. were supported by NNX12AC03G and NNX15AT96G. CIT-CIMS measurements were supported by NASA grants NNX12AC06G and NNX14AP46G-ACCDAM. ISAF HCHO observations were supported by NASA SEAC^4RS grant NNH10ZDA001N. The authors would also like to thank the SEAC^4RS science team and the DC-8 flight crews. Data from the SEAC^4RS mission can be found at http://www-air.larc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/ArcView/seac4rs and http://www-air.larc.nasa.gov/missions/seac4rs/index.html.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASANNX12AB77G
NASANNX12AC20G
NASANNX14AP45G
Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie (BMVIT)UNSPECIFIED
Austrian Space Applications Programme (ASAP)UNSPECIFIED
National Institute of Aerospace (NIA)UNSPECIFIED
NASANNX12AC03G
NASANNX15AT96G
NASANNX12AC06G
NASANNX14AP46G-ACCDAM
NASANNH10ZDA001N
Subject Keywords:biomass burning; agricultural fire; fire emissions;plume chemistry; oxidants; aerosols
Issue or Number:12
DOI:10.1002/2016JD025040
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160912-094736849
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160912-094736849
Official Citation:Liu, X., et al. (2016), Agricultural fires in the southeastern U.S. during SEAC4RS: Emissions of trace gases and particles and evolution of ozone, reactive nitrogen, and organic aerosol, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 7383–7414, doi:10.1002/2016JD025040.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:70276
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:12 Sep 2016 18:18
Last Modified:11 Nov 2021 04:26

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