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Transfer of Energy and Materials in Fluid System

Sage, B. H. and Standart, G. C. and Billman, G. W. and Corcoran, W. H. and Hough, E. W. (1946) Transfer of Energy and Materials in Fluid System. California Institute of Technology , Pasadena, CA. (Unpublished)

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Foreword: In a large number of the situations with which an engineer is concerned in the process industries, transfers of energy, momentum and material in and between phases of flowing fluids are of importance. It behooves one interested in process development and design to become familiar with the fundamentals of such transfer processes in order that the rates of transfer may be predicted with reasonable accuracy on the basis of available facts describing the situation. The work of J. Boussinesq and Osborne Reynolds in the early part of the nineteenth century was one of the most outstanding early contributions to this subject. They laid the basis of moat of the modern concepts of fluid mechanics and of the transfers of material and thermal energy in flowing fluids. The analogies between the transfer of momentum and the thermal transfer of energy were investigated and discussed by Reynolds, Prandt1, and Karman, who made extensive contributions to the refinement of the analogy. In the first instance Reynolds considered that the turbulent core of a flowing fluid extended to the boundary of the conduit; whereas Prandtl postulated the existence of a laminar boundary layer wherein diffusional processes predominated. Von Karman added, in a further modification, the concept of an intermediate transition layer where neither fully developed turbulent nor laminar flow obtained. It appears that in the course of time it will be possible to predict, with an accuracy comparable to that of most experimental work, the thermal transfers of energy to and through turbulently flowing streams for which the corresponding transfers of momentum are known. Likewise the analogy between the transfer of material in and to turbulently flowing streams and the corresponding transfers of momentum has been pointed out by T. K. Sherwood. However, the background of experimental information to test the veracity of such analogies is not nearly as extensive as that available for the study of the analogies between the thermal transfer of energy and tho transfer of momentum discussed in the preceding paragraphs. It 1a the purpose of this text to set forth some of the simpler concepts of fluid mechanics and their application to the description of the transfers of momentum associated with turbulently flowing fluid streams under conditions commonly encountered in industrial practice. Upon this background is then based a treatment of the thermal transfer of energy which is predicated largely upon the analogy to the transfer of momentum. Little attempt has been made to describe or even make reference to the large background of experimental facts concerning the thermal transfer of energy, since this subject has been covered in a satisfactory fashion by McAdams in his text entitled "Heat Transmission". There is also included in this text a consideration of the transfer of materials associated with turbulently flowing fluid systems which treatment likewise is largely dependent upon the analogy with the transfer of momentum in similar systems. This discussion has been prepared by the transfer group in the Chemical Engineering Laboratory. G. W. Billman, W. H. Corcoran, E. W. Hough and G. C. Standart were primarily responsible for the details of the material presented. B. H. Sage

Item Type:Report or Paper (Discussion Paper)
Subject Keywords:transfers of energy ; transfers of momentum ; transfers of material ; phases of flowing fluids ; turbulence ; fluid systems
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160915-123327866
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:70378
Deposited By: Katherine Johnson
Deposited On:15 Sep 2016 20:30
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 10:30

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