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Visual statistical learning produces implicit and explicit knowledge about temporal order information and scene chunks: Evidence from direct and indirect measures

Otsuka, Sachio and Koch, Christof and Saiki, Jun (2016) Visual statistical learning produces implicit and explicit knowledge about temporal order information and scene chunks: Evidence from direct and indirect measures. Visual Cognition, 24 (2). pp. 155-172. ISSN 1350-6285. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160922-103146475

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Abstract

We examined whether visual statistical learning (VSL) produced implicit and/or explicit knowledge about temporal order information and scene chunks, using a rapid serial visual presentation target detection task and a two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) familiarity test as indirect and direct measures of VSL, respectively. In the familiarization phase, participants viewed a visual stream of natural scenes consisting of four triplets (i.e., three images that always appeared in the same order). In the subsequent target detection task, participants were required to detect target items embedded in a stream of 12 images or 12 words representing each natural scene. In the final 2AFC familiarity test, participants observed two test sequences (statistically related triplets vs. unrelated foils) and decided whether the first or second sequence was more familiar based on the familiarization phase. In both test phases, we included the same (forward) and reverse (backward) order of scenes as presented during the familiarization phase to examine whether the expression of VSL was based on temporal order of scenes or scene chunks. The results of the target detection task showed a learning effect for both temporal order in the forward condition and chunks in the backward condition, irrespective of whether stimuli were images or words; in contrast, we did not observe a learning effect in the backward condition for scene images in the familiarity test. Our findings are compatible with a learning mechanism that has both implicit and explicit components based on temporal order information and scene chunks.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13506285.2016.1211209DOIArticle
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13506285.2016.1211209PublisherArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Koch, Christof0000-0001-6482-8067
Additional Information:© 2016 Informa Group plc. Received 20 Nov 2015, Accepted 04 Jul 2016, Published online: 10 Aug 2016.
Subject Keywords:Statistical learning, temporal order, chunks, implicit/explicit knowledge
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160922-103146475
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160922-103146475
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:70528
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:22 Sep 2016 21:48
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 10:31

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