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Microstructural and geochemical constraints on the evolution of deep arc lithosphere

Chin, Emily J. and Soustelle, Vincent and Hirth, Greg and Saal, Alberto E. and Kruckenberg, Seth C. and Eiler, John M. (2016) Microstructural and geochemical constraints on the evolution of deep arc lithosphere. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 17 (7). pp. 2497-2521. ISSN 1525-2027.

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Mantle xenoliths from the Sierra Nevada, California, USA, sampled a vertical column (60–120 km) of lithosphere that formed during Mesozoic continental arc magmatism. This lithosphere experienced an anticlockwise P-T-t path resulting in rapid cooling that effectively “quenched in” features inherited from earlier high-temperature conditions. Here we combine new mineral chemistry data (water, trace element, and major element concentrations) with mineral crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) to investigate the relationship between melt infiltration and deformation. The peridotites record a refertilization trend with increasing depth, starting from shallow, coarse-protogranular, less-melt-infiltrated spinel peridotite with strong, orthorhombic olivine CPO to deep, fine-porphyroclastic, highly melt-infiltrated garnet peridotite with weak, axial-[010] olivine CPO. In contrast to the observed axial-[010] CPOs, subgrain boundary orientations and misorientation axes suggest the dominant activation of the (001)[100] slip system, suggesting deformation under moderately hydrous conditions. After accounting for effects of subsolidus cooling, we see coherent trends between mineral trace element abundance and water content, indicating that melt infiltration led to an increase in water content of the peridotites. However, measured olivine and pyroxene water contents in all peridotites (5–10 and 30–500 wt ppm, respectively) are lower than that required to promote dominant (001)[100] slip system observed in both natural and experimental samples. These results suggest that deformation occurred earlier along the P-T path, probably during or shortly after hydrous melt infiltration. Subsequent rapid cooling at 90 Ma led to water loss from olivine (owing to decreased solubility at low temperature), leaving behind a deep arc lithosphere that remained viscously coupled to the Farallon slab until the opening of the slab window in the late Cenozoic.

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Additional Information:© 2016. American Geophysical Union. Received 29 Oct 2015. Accepted 1 Jun 2016. Accepted article online 3 Jun 2016. Published online 10 Jul 2016. This research was supported by a Brown Postdoctoral Research Fellowship to E.J.C., NSF-EAR 1361487 (CSEDI) at Brown University, and research funds from Boston College to S.C.K. We thank Yunbin Guan for assistance on the Caltech SIMS, Joseph Boesenberg for assistance on the Brown electron microprobe, and Soumen Mallick for help with the Brown laser ablation ICP-MS. We thank two anonymous reviewers for thoughtful and constructive reviews. We also thank Editor T. Becker for efficient handling of our manuscript. All data in this manuscript are available in the figures, as well as in the supporting information.
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Brown UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:7
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20161012-065742431
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Official Citation:Chin, E. J., V. Soustelle, G. Hirth, A. E. Saal, S. C. Kruckenberg, and J. M. Eiler (2016), Microstructural and geochemical constraints on the evolution of deep arc lithosphere, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 17, 2497–2521, doi:10.1002/2015GC006156.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:71007
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:12 Oct 2016 18:57
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 16:03

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