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The 16 April 2016, M_W 7.8 (M_S 7.5) Ecuador earthquake: A quasi-repeat of the 1942 M_S 7.5 earthquake and partial re-rupture of the 1906 M_S 8.6 Colombia–Ecuador earthquake

Ye, Lingling and Kanamori, Hiroo and Avouac, Jean-Philippe and Li, Linyan and Cheung, Kwok Fai and Lay, Thorne (2016) The 16 April 2016, M_W 7.8 (M_S 7.5) Ecuador earthquake: A quasi-repeat of the 1942 M_S 7.5 earthquake and partial re-rupture of the 1906 M_S 8.6 Colombia–Ecuador earthquake. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 454 . pp. 248-258. ISSN 0012-821X. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2016.09.006.

[img] MS Word (Supporting information includes 6 figures, 3 tables and 4 animations) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Animation M1 - Back-projections of 0.5–2.0 Hz P waves from NA and EU networks) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Animation M2 - Zoom-in tsunami animation to DART 32067 and along the coast of Ecuador) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Animation M3 - Large-area tsunami animation to 3 DART stations and along the coasts of South and Central America) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Animation M4 - Rupture animation for slip (top) and cumulative slip (bottom) for the preferred fault model for the 2016 Ecuador earthquake. The moment-rate function is shown above each slip distribution, with a moving time indicator) - Supplemental Material
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The 2016 Ecuador M _W 7.8 earthquake ruptured the subduction zone boundary between the Nazca and South American plates. Joint modeling of seismic and tsunami observations indicates an ∼120 km long rupture area beneath the coastline north of the 1998 M_W 7.2 rupture. The slip distribution reveals two discrete asperities near the hypocenter and around the equator. Their locations and the patchy pattern are consistent with the prior interseismic geodetic strain, which showed highly locked patches also beneath the coastline. Aftershocks cluster along two streaks, one aligned nearly parallel to the plate convergence direction up-dip of the main slip patches, and the other on a trench-perpendicular lineation south of the 1958 rupture zone. Comparisons of seismic waveforms and magnitudes show that the 2016 event and 1942 earthquakes have similar surface wave magnitude M_S 7.5), overlapping rupture areas, and similar main pulses of moment rate. The same area ruptured as the southernmost portion of the larger earthquake of 1906 (M_W 8.6, M_S 8.6). The seismic behavior reflects persistent heterogeneous frictional properties of the Colombia–Ecuador megathrust.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Ye, Lingling0000-0002-8739-2072
Kanamori, Hiroo0000-0001-8219-9428
Avouac, Jean-Philippe0000-0002-3060-8442
Cheung, Kwok Fai0000-0002-7435-0500
Lay, Thorne0000-0003-2360-4213
Additional Information:© 2016 Elsevier B.V. Received 29 June 2016; Received in revised form 31 August 2016; Accepted 2 September 2016; Available online 30 September 2016. The IRIS DMS data center ( was used to access the seismic data from Global Seismic Network and Federation of Digital Seismic Network stations. Bernard Dost at the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute in Dutch helped check the peak-to-peak amplitude and the instrumental response for the 1942 event, and also provide the broadband record for the 2016 event at Debilt. Björn Lund at Uppsala university helped check the historical instrumental responses at Uppsala station. Omori seismograms for the 1906 earthquake are provided by the Mizusawa observatory. Stephen Hartzell and Tom Heaton provided high-resolution copies of Pasadena P waveforms records for the 1942, 1958 and 1979 events. The copies of the papers of the Gutenberg notepad are provided by the Archives of the California Institute of Technology. James Dewey at USGS provided us ISC-NEIC information on MSMS for 1979 and 2016 events. Stephen Hernandez helped provide access to the local seismic catalog. Mohamed Chlieh provided his preferred geodetic coupling model. Yong Wei provided the post-processed DART and tide gauge time series, where the original data can be downloaded from the NOAA National Data Buoy Center ( and CO-OPS Tsunami Capable Tide Stations ( David Sandwell and Xiaohui Xu at UC San Diego, Karsten Spaans and Andrew Hooper at Leeds showed us their InSAR images respectively for comparison, along with helpful discussions. This data analysis made use of GMT, SAC, and Matlab software. We thank Nadia Lapusta and Luis Rivera for helpful discussion. This work was supported by NSF grant EAR1245717 to Thorne Lay, and Caltech Seismological Laboratory Director's fellowship to Lingling Ye.
Group:Seismological Laboratory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Caltech Seismological LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:2016 Ecuador earthquake; re-rupture of 1942 event; source rupture model; Ecuador–Colombia earthquake sequence
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20161017-091410617
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Official Citation:Lingling Ye, Hiroo Kanamori, Jean-Philippe Avouac, Linyan Li, Kwok Fai Cheung, Thorne Lay, The 16 April 2016, MW 7.8 (MS 7.5) Ecuador earthquake: A quasi-repeat of the 1942 MS 7.5 earthquake and partial re-rupture of the 1906 MS 8.6 Colombia–Ecuador earthquake, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Volume 454, 15 November 2016, Pages 248-258, ISSN 0012-821X, (
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:71144
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:17 Oct 2016 16:35
Last Modified:11 Nov 2021 04:40

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