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Rising from the Ashes: Mid-infrared Re-brightening of the Impostor SN 2010da in NGC 300

Lau, Ryan M. and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Bond, Howard E. and Smith, Nathan and Fox, Ori D. and Carlon, Robert and Cody, Ann Marie and Contreras, Carlos and Dykhoff, Devin and Gehrz, Robert and Hsiao, Eric and Jencson, Jacob and Khan, Rubab and Masci, Frank and Monard, L. A. G. and Monson, Andrew J. and Morrell, Nidia and Phillips, Mark and Ressler, Michael E. (2016) Rising from the Ashes: Mid-infrared Re-brightening of the Impostor SN 2010da in NGC 300. Astrophysical Journal, 830 (2). Art. No. 142. ISSN 0004-637X.

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We present multi-epoch mid-infrared (IR) photometry and the optical discovery observations of the "impostor" supernova (SN) 2010da in NGC 300 using new and archival Spitzer Space Telescope images and ground-based observatories. The mid-infrared counterpart of SN 2010da was detected as Spitzer Infrared Intensive Transient Survey (SPIRITS) 14bme in the SPIRITS, an ongoing systematic search for IR transients. Before erupting on 2010 May 24, the SN 2010da progenitor exhibited a constant mid-IR flux at 3.6 and only a slight ~10% decrease at 4.5 μm between 2003 November and 2007 December. A sharp increase in the 3.6 μm flux followed by a rapid decrease measured ~150 days before and ~80 days after the initial outburst, respectively, reveal a mid-IR counterpart to the coincident optical and high luminosity X-ray outbursts. At late times, after the outburst (~2000 days), the 3.6 and 4.5 μm emission increased to over a factor of two times the progenitor flux and is currently observed (as of 2016 Feb) to be fading, but still above the progenitor flux. We attribute the re-brightening mid-IR emission to continued dust production and increasing luminosity of the surviving system associated with SN 2010da. We analyze the evolution of the dust temperature (T_d ~ 700–1000 K), mass (M_d ~ 0.5–3.8 × 10^(−7) M⊙), luminosity (L_(IR) ~ 1.3–3.5 × 10^4 L⊙), and the equilibrium temperature radius (R_(eq) ~ 6.4–12.2 au) in order to resolve the nature of SN 2010da. We address the leading interpretation of SN 2010da as an eruption from a luminous blue variable high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) system. We propose that SN 2010da is instead a supergiant (sg)B[e]-HMXB based on similar luminosities and dust masses exhibited by two other known sgB[e]-HMXB systems. Additionally, the SN 2010da progenitor occupies a similar region on a mid-IR color–magnitude diagram (CMD) with known sgB[e] stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The lower limit estimated for the orbital eccentricity of the sgB[e]-HMXB (e > 0.82) from X-ray luminosity measurements is high compared to known sgHMXBs and supports the claim that SN 2010da may be associated with a newly formed HMXB system.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Bond, Howard E.0000-0003-1377-7145
Fox, Ori D.0000-0003-2238-1572
Cody, Ann Marie0000-0002-3656-6706
Gehrz, Robert0000-0003-1319-4089
Jencson, Jacob0000-0001-5754-4007
Masci, Frank0000-0002-8532-9395
Monson, Andrew J.0000-0002-0048-2586
Morrell, Nidia0000-0003-2535-3091
Phillips, Mark0000-0003-2734-0796
Additional Information:© 2016 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2016 May 6; revised 2016 July 25; accepted 2016 July 26; published 2016 October 18. This work made use of observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA (PIDS 1083, 40204, 61002, 80015A, 80196, 80015, 10136, 10139, 11063, and 11053). Ground-based observations presented were obtained from the Bronberg Observatory, the SMARTS Consortium 1.3 m telescope at CTIO, the 1 m Swope telescope at LCO, the Mount Lemmon Observing Facility, operated by the University of Minnesota, and the Magellan Baade Telescope at LCO. This work was partially carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. J.J. is supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144469. R.D.G. and his group at MLOF were supported, in part, by the United States Air Force. R.L. thanks Drew Clausen for enlightening discussions on high-mass X-ray binaries. R.L. also thanks Scott Adams for insightful comments and the anonymous referee for the valuable suggestions and corrections. H.E.B. thanks the STScI Director's Discretionary Research Fund for supporting STScI's participation in the SMARTS Consortium. We appreciate the excellent work of the CTIO/SMARTS service observers who obtained the ANDICAM images during many long clear Tololo nights: Juan Espinoza, Alberto Miranda, Mauricio Rojas, and Jacqueline Seron.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Palomar Transient Factory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1144469
United States Air ForceUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:circumstellar matter – dust, extinction – stars: evolution – stars: mass-loss – supernovae: individual (SN 2010da) – X-rays: binaries
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20161018-122908941
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Ryan M. Lau et al 2016 ApJ 830 142
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:71225
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:18 Oct 2016 19:41
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

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