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Using airborne HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) to evaluate model and remote sensing estimates of atmospheric carbon dioxide

Frankenberg, Christian and Kulawik, Susan S. and Wofsy, Steven C. and Chevallier, Frédéric and Daube, Bruce and Kort, Eric A. and O'Dell, Christopher and Olsen, Edward T. and Osterman, Gregory (2016) Using airborne HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) to evaluate model and remote sensing estimates of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16 (12). pp. 7867-7878. ISSN 1680-7324.

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In recent years, space-borne observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO_2) have been increasingly used in global carbon-cycle studies. In order to obtain added value from space-borne measurements, they have to suffice stringent accuracy and precision requirements, with the latter being less crucial as it can be reduced by just enhanced sample size. Validation of CO_2 column-averaged dry air mole fractions (XCO_2) heavily relies on measurements of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). Owing to the sparseness of the network and the requirements imposed on space-based measurements, independent additional validation is highly valuable. Here, we use observations from the High-Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) flights from 01/2009 through 09/2011 to validate CO_2 measurements from satellites (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite – GOSAT, Thermal Emission Sounder – TES, Atmospheric Infrared Sounder – AIRS) and atmospheric inversion models (CarbonTracker CT2013B, Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) v13r1). We find that the atmospheric models capture the XCO_2 variability observed in HIPPO flights very well, with correlation coefficients (r^2) of 0.93 and 0.95 for CT2013B and MACC, respectively. Some larger discrepancies can be observed in profile comparisons at higher latitudes, in particular at 300 hPa during the peaks of either carbon uptake or release. These deviations can be up to 4 ppm and hint at misrepresentation of vertical transport. Comparisons with the GOSAT satellite are of comparable quality, with an r^2 of 0.85, a mean bias μ of −0.06 ppm, and a standard deviation σ of 0.45 ppm. TES exhibits an r^2 of 0.75, μ of 0.34 ppm, and σ of 1.13 ppm. For AIRS, we find an r^2 of 0.37, μ of 1.11 ppm, and σ of 1.46 ppm, with latitude-dependent biases. For these comparisons at least 6, 20, and 50 atmospheric soundings have been averaged for GOSAT, TES, and AIRS, respectively. Overall, we find that GOSAT soundings over the remote Pacific Ocean mostly meet the stringent accuracy requirements of about 0.5 ppm for space-based CO_2 observations.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription
Frankenberg, Christian0000-0002-0546-5857
Wofsy, Steven C.0000-0002-3990-6737
Chevallier, Frédéric0000-0002-4327-3813
Kort, Eric A.0000-0003-4940-7541
Additional Information:© Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Received: 25 November 2015 – Published in Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.: 19 January 2016. Revised: 10 May 2016 – Accepted: 26 May 2016 – Published: 27 June 2016. Funded by NASA Roses ESDR-ERR 10/10-ESDRERR10-0031, “Estimation of biases and errors of CO_2 satellite observations from AIRS, GOSAT, SCIAMACHY, TES, and OCO-2”. We thank the entire HIPPO team for making these measurements possible and the NIES and JAXA GOSAT teams for designing and operating the GOSAT mission and generously sharing L1 data with the ACOS project. Andy Jacobson (NOAA ESRL, Boulder, Colorado) provided CarbonTracker CT2013B results and advised in data usage and interpretation. Data availability: CarbonTracker CT2013B data are available at MACC data are available at TES data are available at HIPPO data are available at AIRS data are available at http://disc.sci. GOSAT data processed by NASA/JPL as well as a general CO_2 repository are available at Edited by: M. Chipperfield
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Issue or Number:12
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20161024-121423361
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Official Citation:Frankenberg, C., Kulawik, S. S., Wofsy, S. C., Chevallier, F., Daube, B., Kort, E. A., O'Dell, C., Olsen, E. T., and Osterman, G.: Using airborne HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) to evaluate model and remote sensing estimates of atmospheric carbon dioxide, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7867-7878, doi:10.5194/acp-16-7867-2016, 2016.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:71387
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:24 Oct 2016 19:34
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

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