A Caltech Library Service

Hierarchies and relations among data types

Ingargiola, Giorgio P. (1974) Hierarchies and relations among data types. In: ACM '74 Proceedings of the 1974 annual ACM conference. Vol.2. ACM , New York, NY, pp. 622-634.

Full text is not posted in this repository. Consult Related URLs below.

Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


The aim of this report is to show that, within the limits of what we know how to do efficiently with computers, it is possible to design a system of types that, to a good degree, models the conceptual hierarchies that we use in our everyday discourse. A method is presented for representing sets of objects by types and for representing relations among objects by relations among types. In the definition of types we can use variables (called formal variables) that range on types, and methods are provided for binding such variables to particular types. Types are either primitive, or formal variables, or obtained from types by the application of definitional operators. Relations are established among types to express that their instances have the same physial representation, or to express, possibly with additional requirements, that the set of instances of a type is a subset of the set of instances of another. These relations are used to assure that assignments and procedure calls preserve the membership of objects to the sets that are denoted by their types. By the use of formal variables we achieve the ability to abstract, in particular contexts, from details of objects.

Item Type:Book Section
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Additional Information:© 1974 ACM. This research has been supported by a grant of the National Science Foundation (GJ-28424). I am grateful to Professors P. Brinch Hansen and C.A.R. Hoare for discussions and suggestions.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Subject Keywords:Programming languages, data types, semantics, correctness, programming methodology
Classification Code:CR categories: 4. 20, 4. 34, 5.24
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20161107-161002615
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Giorgio P. Ingargiola. 1974. Hierarchies and relations among data types. In Proceedings of the 1974 annual ACM conference - Volume 2 (ACM '74), Vol. 2. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 622-634. DOI=
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:71784
Deposited On:08 Nov 2016 00:29
Last Modified:11 Nov 2021 04:51

Repository Staff Only: item control page