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Mass Measurements in Protoplanetary Disks from Hydrogen Deuteride

McClure, M. K. and Bergin, E. A. and Cleeves, L. I. and van Dishoeck, E. F. and Blake, G. A. and Evans, N. J., II and Green, J. D. and Henning, Th. and Öberg, K. I. and Pontoppidan, K. M. and Salyk, C. (2016) Mass Measurements in Protoplanetary Disks from Hydrogen Deuteride. Astrophysical Journal, 831 (2). Art. No. 167. ISSN 0004-637X.

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The total gas mass of a protoplanetary disk is a fundamental, but poorly determined, quantity. A new technique has been demonstrated to assess directly the bulk molecular gas reservoir of molecular hydrogen using the HD J =1-0 line at 112 µm. In this work we present a Herschel Space Observatory survey of six additional T Tauri disks in the HD line. Line emission is detected at > 3σ significance in two cases: DM Tau and GM Aur. For the other four disks, we establish upper limits to the line flux. Using detailed disk structure and ray-tracing models, we calculate the temperature structure and dust mass from modeling the observed spectral energy distributions, and we include the effect of UV gas heating to determine the amount of gas required to fit the HD line. The ranges of gas masses are 1.0-4.7 × 10^(-2) for DM Tau and 2.5-20.4 × 10^(-2) for GM Aur. These values are larger than those found using CO for GM Aur, while the CO-derived gas mass for DM Tau is consistent with the lower end of our mass range. This suggests a CO chemical depletion from the gas phase of up to a factor of five for DM Tau and up to two orders of magnitude for GM Aur. We discuss how future analysis can narrow the mass ranges further.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Bergin, E. A.0000-0003-4179-6394
Cleeves, L. I.0000-0003-2076-8001
van Dishoeck, E. F.0000-0001-7591-1907
Blake, G. A.0000-0003-0787-1610
Evans, N. J., II0000-0001-5175-1777
Öberg, K. I.0000-0001-8798-1347
Pontoppidan, K. M.0000-0001-7552-1562
Salyk, C.0000-0003-3682-6632
Additional Information:© 2016. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2015 December 18; revised 2016 August 25; accepted 2016 August 25; published 2016 November 4. This work is based on observations made with Herschel, a European Space Agency Cornerstone Mission with significant participation by NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech. We thank Davide Fedele for useful discussions regarding the data reduction and line flux determinations. We would also like to thank the anonymous referee for constructive suggestions.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Space Agency (ESA)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:astrobiology – protoplanetary disks – radiative transfer
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20161107-163030668
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:M. K. McClure et al 2016 ApJ 831 167
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:71788
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:08 Nov 2016 16:29
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

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