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Field Effect Optoelectronic Modulation of Quantum-Confined Carriers in Black Phosphorus

Whitney, William S. and Sherrott, Michelle C. and Jariwala, Deep and Lin, Wei-Hsiang and Bechtel, Hans A. and Rossman, George R. and Atwater, Harry A. (2017) Field Effect Optoelectronic Modulation of Quantum-Confined Carriers in Black Phosphorus. Nano Letters, 17 (1). pp. 78-84. ISSN 1530-6984. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b03362.

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We report measurements of the infrared optical response of thin black phosphorus under field-effect modulation. We interpret the observed spectral changes as a combination of an ambipolar Burstein–Moss (BM) shift of the absorption edge due to band-filling under gate control, and a quantum confined Franz-Keldysh (QCFK) effect, phenomena that have been proposed theoretically to occur for black phosphorus under an applied electric field. Distinct optical responses are observed depending on the flake thickness and starting carrier concentration. Transmission extinction modulation amplitudes of more than two percent are observed, suggesting the potential for use of black phosphorus as an active material in mid-infrared optoelectronic modulator applications.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Information Paper
Whitney, William S.0000-0001-5269-2967
Sherrott, Michelle C.0000-0002-7503-9714
Jariwala, Deep0000-0002-3570-8768
Lin, Wei-Hsiang0000-0003-0037-1277
Bechtel, Hans A.0000-0002-7606-9333
Rossman, George R.0000-0002-4571-6884
Atwater, Harry A.0000-0001-9435-0201
Additional Information:© 2016 American Chemical Society. Received: August 10, 2016; Revised: December 11, 2016; Published: December 22, 2016. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, under Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER46405. The authors gratefully acknowledge use of the facilities of beamline 1.4.3 at the Advanced Light Source, which is supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. M.C.S. and D.J. acknowledge support by the Resnick Institute, and W.S.W. acknowledges support by the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, a DOE Office of Science User Facility supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. The authors are grateful to Victor Brar for helpful discussions. Author Contributions: W.S.W. and M.C.S. contributed equally to this work. The authors declare no competing financial interest.
Group:Resnick Sustainability Institute
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-FG02-07ER46405
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-05CH11231
Resnick Sustainability InstituteUNSPECIFIED
National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Black phosphorus; Burstein−Moss shift; mid-infrared; optical modulator; quantum-confined Franz-Keldysh effect; tunable optical properties
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20161114-090220876
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Official Citation:Field Effect Optoelectronic Modulation of Quantum-Confined Carriers in Black Phosphorus William S. Whitney, Michelle C. Sherrott, Deep Jariwala, Wei-Hsiang Lin, Hans A. Bechtel, George R. Rossman, and Harry A. Atwater Nano Letters 2017 17 (1), 78-84 DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b03362
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:71979
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:15 Nov 2016 23:58
Last Modified:11 Nov 2021 04:54

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