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An extremely luminous X-ray outburst at the birth of a supernova

Soderberg, A. M. and Berger, E. and Page, K. L. and Schady, P. and Parrent, J. and Pooley, D. and Wang, X.-Y. and Ofek, E. O. and Cucchiara, A. and Rau, A. and Waxman, E. and Simon, J. D. and Bock, D. C.-J. and Milne, P. A. and Page, M. J. and Barentine, J. C. and Barthelmy, S. D. and Beardmore, A. P. and Bietenholz, M. F. and Brown, P. and Burrows, A. S. and Burrows, D. N. and Byrngelson, G. and Cenko, S. B. and Chandra, P. and Cummings, J. R. and Fox, D. B. and Gal-Yam, A. and Gehrels, N. and Immler, S. and Kasliwal, M. and Kong, Albert K. H. and Krimm, H. A. and Kulkarni, S. R. and Maccarone, T. J. and Mészáros, P. and Nakar, E. and O’Brien, P. T. and Overzier, R. A. and de Pasquale, M. and Racusin, J. and Rea, N. and York, D. G. (2008) An extremely luminous X-ray outburst at the birth of a supernova. Nature, 453 (7194). pp. 469-474. ISSN 0028-0836.

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Massive stars end their short lives in spectacular explosions—supernovae—that synthesize new elements and drive galaxy evolution. Historically, supernovae were discovered mainly through their 'delayed' optical light (some days after the burst of neutrinos that marks the actual event), preventing observations in the first moments following the explosion. As a result, the progenitors of some supernovae and the events leading up to their violent demise remain intensely debated. Here we report the serendipitous discovery of a supernova at the time of the explosion, marked by an extremely luminous X-ray outburst. We attribute the outburst to the 'break-out' of the supernova shock wave from the progenitor star, and show that the inferred rate of such events agrees with that of all core-collapse supernovae. We predict that future wide-field X-ray surveys will catch each year hundreds of supernovae in the act of exploding.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription ReadCube access Paper
Berger, E.0000-0002-9392-9681
Page, K. L.0000-0001-5624-2613
Pooley, D.0000-0003-4897-7833
Ofek, E. O.0000-0002-6786-8774
Rau, A.0000-0001-5990-6243
Waxman, E.0000-0002-9038-5877
Milne, P. A.0000-0002-0370-157X
Page, M. J.0000-0002-6689-6271
Burrows, A. S.0000-0002-3099-5024
Cenko, S. B.0000-0003-1673-970X
Fox, D. B.0000-0002-3714-672X
Gal-Yam, A.0000-0002-3653-5598
Kasliwal, M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Kong, Albert K. H.0000-0002-5105-344X
Krimm, H. A.0000-0003-4348-6058
Kulkarni, S. R.0000-0001-5390-8563
Maccarone, T. J.0000-0003-0976-4755
Nakar, E.0000-0002-4534-7089
Rea, N.0000-0003-2177-6388
Additional Information:© 2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Received 11 February; accepted 4 April 2008. This Article is based in part on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory through the Director's Discretionary Time. Gemini is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the NSF (US), the STFC (UK), the NRC (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the ARC (Australia), CNPq (Brazil) and SECYT (Argentina). The VLA is operated by NRAO, a facility of the NSF operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and NASA. The Observatory was made possible by the financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. A.M.S. acknowledges support by NASA through a Hubble Fellowship.
Errata:Corrigendum Nature 454, 246 (10 July 2008) | doi:10.1038/nature07134 An extremely luminous X-ray outburst at the birth of a supernova A. M. Soderberg, E. Berger, K. L. Page, P. Schady, J. Parrent, D. Pooley, X.-Y. Wang, E. O. Ofek, A. Cucchiara, A. Rau, E. Waxman, J. D. Simon, D. C.-J. Bock, P. A. Milne, M. J. Page, J. C. Barentine, S. D. Barthelmy, A. P. Beardmore, M. F. Bietenholz, P. Brown, A. Burrows, D. N. Burrows, G. Bryngelson, S. B. Cenko, P. Chandra, J. R. Cummings, D. B. Fox, A. Gal-Yam, N. Gehrels, S. Immler, M. Kasliwal, A. K. H. Kong, H. A. Krimm, S. R. Kulkarni, T. J. Maccarone, P. Mészáros, E. Nakar, P. T. O'Brien, R. A. Overzier, M. de Pasquale, J. Racusin, N. Rea & D. G. York Nature 453, 469–474 (2008) In this Article, the surname of co-author G. Bryngelson was mis-spelled as G. Byrngelson.
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W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:7194
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170103-133236419
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:73180
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:03 Jan 2017 21:53
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

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