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Degradation and Removal Methods for Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Water

Merino, Nancy and Qu, Yan and Deeb, Rula A. and Hawley, Elisabeth L. and Hoffmann, Michael R. and Mahendra, Shaily (2016) Degradation and Removal Methods for Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Water. Environmental Engineering Science, 33 (9). pp. 615-649. ISSN 1092-8758. doi:10.1089/ees.2016.0233.

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Several perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been identified as chemicals of concern in the environment due to their persistence, global ubiquity, and classification as reproductive and developmental toxicants, endocrine disrupters, and possible carcinogens. Multiple PFASs are often found together in the environment due to product manufacturing methods and abiotic and biotic transformations. Treatment methods are needed to effectively sequester or destroy a variety of PFASs from groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater. This review presents a comprehensive summary of several categories of treatment approaches: (1) sorption using activated carbon, ion exchange, or other sorbents, (2) advanced oxidation processes, including electrochemical oxidation, photolysis, and photocatalysis, (3) advanced reduction processes using aqueous iodide or dithionite and sulfite, (4) thermal and nonthermal destruction, including incineration, sonochemical degradation, sub- or supercritical treatment, microwave-hydrothermal treatment, and high-voltage electric discharge, (5) microbial treatment, and (6) other treatment processes, including ozonation under alkaline conditions, permanganate oxidation, vitamin-B_(12) and Ti(III) citrate reductive defluorination, and ball milling. Discussion of each treatment technology, including background, mechanisms, advances, and effectiveness, will inform the development of cost-effective PFAS remediation strategies based on environmental parameters and applicable methodologies. Further optimization of current technologies to analyze and remove or destroy PFASs below regulatory guidelines is needed. Due to the stability of PFASs, a combination of multiple treatment technologies will likely be required to effectively address real-world complexities of PFAS mixtures and cocontaminants present in environmental matrices.

Item Type:Article
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Hoffmann, Michael R.0000-0001-6495-1946
Additional Information:© 2016 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Received: May 2, 2016; Accepted in revised form: July 14, 2016; Online Ahead of Print: August 22, 2016.
Issue or Number:9
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170104-133251873
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Official Citation:Merino Nancy, Qu Yan, Deeb Rula A., Hawley Elisabeth L., Hoffmann Michael R., and Mahendra Shaily. Environmental Engineering Science. September 2016, 33(9): 615-649. doi:10.1089/ees.2016.0233
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:73212
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:04 Jan 2017 21:41
Last Modified:11 Nov 2021 05:13

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