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Patterned photostimulation via visible-wavelength photonic probes for deep brain optogenetics

Segev, Eran and Reimer, Jacob and Moreaux, Laurent C. and Fowler, Trevor M. and Chi, Derrick and Sacher, Wesley D. and Lo, Maisie and Deisseroth, Karl and Tolias, Andreas S. and Faraon, Andrei and Roukes, Michael L. (2017) Patterned photostimulation via visible-wavelength photonic probes for deep brain optogenetics. Neurophotonics, 4 (1). Art. No. 011002. ISSN 2329-423X. PMCID PMC5136672. doi:10.1117/1.NPh.4.1.011002.

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Optogenetic methods developed over the past decade enable unprecedented optical activation and silencing of specific neuronal cell types. However, light scattering in neural tissue precludes illuminating areas deep within the brain via free-space optics; this has impeded employing optogenetics universally. Here, we report an approach surmounting this significant limitation. We realize implantable, ultranarrow, silicon-based photonic probes enabling the delivery of complex illumination patterns deep within brain tissue. Our approach combines methods from integrated nanophotonics and microelectromechanical systems, to yield photonic probes that are robust, scalable, and readily producible en masse. Their minute cross sections minimize tissue displacement upon probe implantation. We functionally validate one probe design in vivo with mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2. Highly local optogenetic neural activation is demonstrated by recording the induced response—both by extracellular electrical recordings in the hippocampus and by two-photon functional imaging in the cortex of mice coexpressing GCaMP6.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription CentralArticle
Moreaux, Laurent C.0000-0003-1276-5062
Sacher, Wesley D.0000-0003-3306-4556
Tolias, Andreas S.0000-0002-4305-6376
Faraon, Andrei0000-0002-8141-391X
Roukes, Michael L.0000-0002-2916-6026
Additional Information:© 2016 SPIE. Paper 16055SSR received Aug. 2, 2016; accepted for publication Oct. 24, 2016; published online Dec. 6, 2016. E.S. was supported by the Kavli Prize Postdoctoral Fellowship in Nanoscience. This work was supported by the NSF Award No. 1265055, DARPA Award No. W911NF-14-1-0006, and NIH Director’s Pioneer Awards (MLR and AST). We gratefully acknowledge facilitation of our prototype probe fabrication by the Kavli Nanoscience Institute at Caltech. We thank Gustavo Rios for helpful discussions.
Group:Kavli Nanoscience Institute, Tianqiao and Chrissy Chen Institute for Neuroscience
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Kavli FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Army Research Office (ARO)W911NF-14-1-0006
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:optogenetics; photonic probes; visible photonics
Issue or Number:1
PubMed Central ID:PMC5136672
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170109-132049976
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Segev E, Reimer J, Moreaux LC, et al; Patterned photostimulation via visible-wavelength photonic probes for deep brain optogenetics. Neurophoton. 0001;4(1):011002. doi:10.1117/1.NPh.4.1.011002
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:73339
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:09 Jan 2017 21:40
Last Modified:07 Apr 2022 16:11

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