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Preexplosive conduit conditions during the 2010 eruption of Merapi volcano (Java, Indonesia)

Drignon, Mélissa J. and Bechon, Tonin and Arbaret, Laurent and Burgisser, Alain and Komorowski, Jean-Christophe and Martel, Caroline and Miller, Hayden and Yaputra, Radit (2016) Preexplosive conduit conditions during the 2010 eruption of Merapi volcano (Java, Indonesia). Geophysical Research Letters, 43 (22). pp. 11595-11602. ISSN 0094-8276.

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The 2010 eruption is the largest explosive event at Merapi volcano since 1872. The high energy of the initial 26 October explosions cannot be explained by simple gravitational collapse, and the paroxysmal explosions were preceded by the growth of a lava dome not large enough to ensure significant pressurization of the system. We sampled pumice from these explosive phases and determined the preexplosive depths of the pumices by combining textural analyses with glass water content measurements. Our results indicate that the magma expelled was tapped from depths of several kilometers. Such depths are much greater than those involved in the pre-2010 effusive activity. We propose that the water-rich magma liberated enough gas to sustain the explosivity. Our results imply that the explosive potential of volcanoes having dome-forming, effusive activity is linked to the depth from which fresh magma can be evacuated in a single explosion, regardless of the evacuated volume.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Drignon, Mélissa J.0000-0003-0978-4414
Bechon, Tonin0000-0003-2007-5854
Arbaret, Laurent0000-0003-4904-9035
Burgisser, Alain0000-0002-9263-622X
Komorowski, Jean-Christophe0000-0002-6874-786X
Miller, Hayden0000-0001-7305-928X
Additional Information:© 2016 American Geophysical Union. Received 8 SEP 2016; Accepted 31 OCT 2016; Accepted article online 3 NOV 2016; Published online 22 NOV 2016. We would like to thank N. Cholik and S. Sumarti of the Merapi Volcano Observatory (CVGHM) in Yogyakarta for their help with fieldwork. We are grateful to S. Cox, M. Lloyd, S. Newman, and J. Eiler for their assistance at the Caltech Isotope Lab; to L. Moulin and N. Perard for their work on the EDS methodology; to I. Di Carlo for her help at the SEM in Orléans; and to S. Erdmann for providing the amphibole compositions. Useful reviews by T. Giachetti and J. Pallister were appreciated. This work was partially funded by the ANR DoMerapi (ANR-12-BS06-0012) and by a grant from Labex OSUG@2020 (Investissements d'avenir—ANR10 LABX56). The data used are available at
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR)ANR-12-BS06-0012
Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR)ANR10-LABX56
Subject Keywords:magma; pumice; degassing; volcanic conduit
Issue or Number:22
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170119-083615429
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Drignon, M. J., T. Bechon, L. Arbaret, A. Burgisser, J.-C. Komorowski, C. Martel, H. Miller, and R. Yaputra (2016), Preexplosive conduit conditions during the 2010 eruption of Merapi volcano (Java, Indonesia), Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 11,595–11,602, doi:10.1002/2016GL071153
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:73544
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:19 Jan 2017 18:47
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 16:28

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