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The Kepler follow-up observation program. I. A catalog of companions to Kepler stars from high-resolution imaging

Furlan, E. and Ciardi, D. R. and Everett, M. E. and Saylors, M. and Teske, J. K. and Horch, E. P. and Howell, S. B. and van Belle, G. T. and Hirsch, L. and Gautier, T. N. and Adams, E. R. and Barrado y Navascués, D. and Cartier, K. M. S. and Dressing, C. D. and Dupree, A. K. and Gilliland, R. L. and Lillo-Box, J. and Lucas, P. W. and Wang, J. (2017) The Kepler follow-up observation program. I. A catalog of companions to Kepler stars from high-resolution imaging. Astronomical Journal, 153 (2). Art. No. 71. ISSN 0004-6256.

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We present results from high-resolution, optical to near-IR imaging of host stars of Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs), identified in the original Kepler field. Part of the data were obtained under the Kepler imaging follow-up observation program over six years (2009–2015). Almost 90% of stars that are hosts to planet candidates or confirmed planets were observed. We combine measurements of companions to KOI host stars from different bands to create a comprehensive catalog of projected separations, position angles, and magnitude differences for all detected companion stars (some of which may not be bound). Our compilation includes 2297 companions around 1903 primary stars. From high-resolution imaging, we find that ~10% (~30%) of the observed stars have at least one companion detected within 1" (4"). The true fraction of systems with close (≾4") companions is larger than the observed one due to the limited sensitivities of the imaging data. We derive correction factors for planet radii caused by the dilution of the transit depth: assuming that planets orbit the primary stars or the brightest companion stars, the average correction factors are 1.06 and 3.09, respectively. The true effect of transit dilution lies in between these two cases and varies with each system. Applying these factors to planet radii decreases the number of KOI planets with radii smaller than 2 R_⊕ by ~2%–23% and thus affects planet occurrence rates. This effect will also be important for the yield of small planets from future transit missions such as TESS.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Furlan, E.0000-0001-9800-6248
Ciardi, D. R.0000-0002-5741-3047
Everett, M. E.0000-0002-0885-7215
Horch, E. P.0000-0003-2159-1463
Howell, S. B.0000-0002-2532-2853
van Belle, G. T.0000-0002-8552-158X
Hirsch, L.0000-0001-8058-7443
Cartier, K. M. S.0000-0001-8213-1597
Dressing, C. D.0000-0001-8189-0233
Gilliland, R. L.0000-0002-1554-5578
Wang, J.0000-0002-4361-8885
Additional Information:© 2017. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2016 August 19. Accepted 2016 December 6. Published 2017 January 13. We thank the Robo-AO team, in particular, its leaders Christoph Baranec, Nicholas Law, Reed Riddle, and Carl Ziegler for sharing their results on robotic laser adaptive optics imaging of KOI host stars in their publications and on CFOP. We also thank Adam Kraus and his team for sharing their results on the multiplicity of KOI host stars obtained with adaptive optics imaging and non-redundant aperture-mask interferometry in their recent publication. The results from these publications provided substantial input for this work. Support for this work was provided by NASA through awards issued by JPL/Caltech. This research has made use of the NASA Exoplanet Archive, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. It has also made use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/Caltech, funded by NASA and the NSF. NASA's Astrophysics Data System Bibliographic Services were also used. Some of the data presented in this work were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Mauna Kea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. This work is also based in part on observations at Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. The WIYN Observatory is a joint facility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, and the University of Missouri. Part of the observations were also obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by AURA under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership. Some of the results in this work are based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
NASANAS 5-26555
Subject Keywords:binaries: general; catalogs; planets and satellites: detection; surveys; techniques: high angular resolution; techniques: photometric
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170120-065411456
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:E. Furlan et al 2017 AJ 153 71
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:73563
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:22 Jan 2017 17:10
Last Modified:27 Nov 2019 18:54

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