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Mixed-Metal Tungsten Oxide Photoanode Materials Made by Pulsed-Laser in Liquids Synthesis

Blumenfeld, Carl M. and Lau, Marcus and Gray, Harry B. and Müller, Astrid M. (2017) Mixed-Metal Tungsten Oxide Photoanode Materials Made by Pulsed-Laser in Liquids Synthesis. ChemPhysChem, 18 (9). pp. 1091-1100. ISSN 1439-4235.

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Globally scalable sunlight-driven devices that convert solar energy into storable fuels will require efficient light absorbers that are made of non-precious elements. Suitable photoanode materials are yet to be discovered. Here we utilised the timesaving nature of pulsed-laser in liquids synthesis and prepared a series of neat and mixed-metal tungsten oxide photoanode materials to investigate the effect of ad-metals on optical and photocurrent generation properties. We obtained sub-μm-sized materials with different colours from W, Al, Ta, or first-row transition metal targets in water or aqueous ammonium metatungstate solutions. We observed metastable polymorphs of WO3 and tungsten oxides with varying degrees of oxygen deficiency. Pulsed-laser in liquids synthesis of Ni in ammonium metatungstate solutions produced hollow spheres (with ≤ 6% Ni with respect to W). Photocurrent generation in strong aqueous acid was highest in mixed-metal tungsten oxide photoanode materials with around 5% of iron or nickel.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Gray, Harry B.0000-0002-7937-7876
Müller, Astrid M.0000-0002-2785-6808
Additional Information:© 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Manuscript received: November 22, 2016; Accepted Article published: January 17, 2017; Final Article published: February 2, 2017. We thank George Rossman for help with optical spectroscopy, Chi Ma for help with SEM (both Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences Caltech), and Nathan Dalleska (Environmental Analysis Center at Caltech) for help with ICP-MS. We performed research in the Laser Resource Center and the Molecular Materials Research Center of the Beckman Institute of the California Institute of Technology. The NSF CCI Solar Fuels Program (CHE-1305124) and the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Foundation supported this work. Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Group:CCI Solar Fuels
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Arnold and Mabel Beckman FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:pulsed-laser synthesis; tungsten oxide; mixed-metal oxides; photoanodes; solar water splitting
Issue or Number:9
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170123-100309949
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Official Citation:C. M. Blumenfeld, M. Lau, H. B. Gray, A. M. Müller, ChemPhysChem 2017, 18, 1091
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:73614
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:26 Jan 2017 17:11
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

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