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Equation of State Effects on Gravitational Waves from Rotating Core Collapse

Richers, Sherwood and Ott, Christian D. and Abdikamalov, Ernazar and O'Connor, Evan and Sullivan, Chris (2017) Equation of State Effects on Gravitational Waves from Rotating Core Collapse. Physical Review D, 95 (6). Art. No. 063019. ISSN 2470-0010. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.95.063019.

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Gravitational waves (GWs) generated by axisymmetric rotating collapse, bounce, and early postbounce phases of a galactic core-collapse supernova are detectable by current-generation gravitational wave observatories. Since these GWs are emitted from the quadrupole-deformed nuclear-density core, they may encode information on the uncertain nuclear equation of state (EOS). We examine the effects of the nuclear EOS on GWs from rotating core collapse and carry out 1824 axisymmetric general-relativistic hydrodynamic simulations that cover a parameter space of 98 different rotation profiles and 18 different EOS. We show that the bounce GW signal is largely independent of the EOS and sensitive primarily to the ratio of rotational to gravitational energy, T/|W|, and at high rotation rates, to the degree of differential rotation. The GW frequency (f_(peak)∼600–1000  Hz) of postbounce core oscillations shows stronger EOS dependence that can be parametrized by the core’s EOS-dependent dynamical frequency √Gρc. We find that the ratio of the peak frequency to the dynamical frequency f_(peak)/√Gρc follows a universal trend that is obeyed by all EOS and rotation profiles and that indicates that the nature of the core oscillations changes when the rotation rate exceeds the dynamical frequency. We find that differences in the treatments of low-density nonuniform nuclear matter, of the transition from nonuniform to uniform nuclear matter, and in the description of nuclear matter up to around twice saturation density can mildly affect the GW signal. More exotic, higher-density physics is not probed by GWs from rotating core collapse. We furthermore test the sensitivity of the GW signal to variations in the treatment of nuclear electron capture during collapse. We find that approximations and uncertainties in electron capture rates can lead to variations in the GW signal that are of comparable magnitude to those due to different nuclear EOS. This emphasizes the need for reliable experimental and/or theoretical nuclear electron capture rates and for self-consistent multidimensional neutrino radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of rotating core collapse.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Richers, Sherwood0000-0001-5031-6829
Ott, Christian D.0000-0003-4993-2055
O'Connor, Evan0000-0002-8228-796X
Additional Information:© 2017 American Physical Society. Received 10 January 2017; published 29 March 2017. We thank Jim Fuller, Hannah Klion, Peter Goldreich, Hiroki Nagakura, Pablo Cerdá-Durán, Hajime Sotani, Luke Roberts, André da Silva Schneider, Chuck Horowitz, Jim Lattimer, Sarah Gossan, and Bill Engels for many insightful discussions. The authors thank Remco Zegers for supporting the development of the (EC) weak rate library, which was instrumental in the completion of this work. S. R. was supported by the Department of Energy Computational Science Graduate Fellowship, which is provided under Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER25308, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) Blue Waters Graduate Fellowship. This research is part of the Blue Waters sustained-petascale computing project, which is supported by the National Science Foundation (Grants No. OCI-0725070 and No. ACI-1238993) and the State of Illinois. Blue Waters is a joint effort of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and its National Centre for Supercomputing Applications. These simulations were performed on the Stampede cluster of the NSF XSEDE network under Allocation TG-PHY100033 and benefited from access to Blue Waters under Allocation NSF PRAC ACI-1440083. This research is supported by the NSF under Awards No. CAREER PHY-1151197, No. AST-1212170, and No. PHY-1404569, by the International Research Unit of Advanced Future Studies, Kyoto university, and by the Sherman Fairchild Foundation. E. A. acknowledges support from NU ORAU and Social Policy grants. C. S. acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation under Grants No. PHY-1430152 (JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements) and No. PHY-1102511 and from the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award No. DE-NA0000979. E. O. acknowledges support for this work by NASA through Hubble Fellowship Grant No. 51344.001-A awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under Contract No. NAS 5-26555.
Group:TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-FG02-97ER25308
NSF Graduate FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
State of IllinoisUNSPECIFIED
Kyoto UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Sherman Fairchild FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-NA0000979
NASA Hubble Fellowship51344.001-A
NASANAS 5-26555
Issue or Number:6
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170201-102929694
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:73928
Deposited By: Joy Painter
Deposited On:01 Feb 2017 19:47
Last Modified:11 Nov 2021 05:23

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