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Flies compensate for unilateral wing damage through modular adjustments of wing and body kinematics

Muijres, Florian T. and Iwasaki, Nicole A. and Elzinga, Michael J. and Melis, Johan M. and Dickinson, Michael H. (2017) Flies compensate for unilateral wing damage through modular adjustments of wing and body kinematics. Interface Focus, 7 (1). Art. No. 20160103. ISSN 2042-8898. PMCID PMC5206612. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20170213-124118184

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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video S1. High-speed video of a flying fruit fly with spanwise wing damage. The flight sequence corresponds to the morphology and kinematics data in Fig. 2E-G. The fly was filmed from above at 7500 frames per second, but is replayed at 300x slower speed) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video S2. High-speed video of a flying fruit fly with spanwise wing damage. The flight sequence corresponds to the morphology and kinematics data in Fig. 2E-G. The fly was filmed from the front at 7500 frames per second, but is replayed at 300x slower spe) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video S3. High-speed video of a flying fruit fly with chordwise wing damage. The flight sequence corresponds to the morphology and kinematics data in Fig. 2H-J. The fly was filmed from above at 7500 frames per second, but is replayed at 300x slower speed) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video S4. High-speed video of a flying fruit fly with chordwise wing damage. The flight sequence corresponds to the morphology and kinematics data in Fig. 2H-J. The fly was filmed from the side at 7500 frames per second, but is replayed at 300x slower spe) - Supplemental Material
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[img] PDF (Table S1, Figures S1-S3 and legends of videos S1-S4 and datasets S1-S3) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Other (Dataset S1. Wing morphology and flight kinematics of all free flight experiments on flies with unilateral wing damage. Data are stored in a Matlab (MathWorks Inc., Natick, MA, USA) dataset format (mat-file)) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Other (Dataset S2. Wing shape parameters, wingbeat kinematics and force and torque output from robotic fly experiments. Data are stored in a Matlab (MathWorks Inc., Natick, MA, USA) dataset format (mat-file)) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Other (Dataset S3. Smoothing spline parameters .... Data are stored in a Matlab (MathWorks Inc., Natick, MA, USA) dataset format (mat-file) ) - Supplemental Material
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Abstract

Using high-speed videography, we investigated how fruit flies compensate for unilateral wing damage, in which loss of area on one wing compromises both weight support and roll torque equilibrium. Our results show that flies control for unilateral damage by rolling their body towards the damaged wing and by adjusting the kinematics of both the intact and damaged wings. To compensate for the reduction in vertical lift force due to damage, flies elevate wingbeat frequency. Because this rise in frequency increases the flapping velocity of both wings, it has the undesired consequence of further increasing roll torque. To compensate for this effect, flies increase the stroke amplitude and advance the timing of pronation and supination of the damaged wing, while making the opposite adjustments on the intact wing. The resulting increase in force on the damaged wing and decrease in force on the intact wing function to maintain zero net roll torque. However, the bilaterally asymmetrical pattern of wing motion generates a finite lateral force, which flies balance by maintaining a constant body roll angle. Based on these results and additional experiments using a dynamically scaled robotic fly, we propose a simple bioinspired control algorithm for asymmetric wing damage.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2016.0103DOIArticle
http://rsfs.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/7/1/20160103PublisherArticle
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5206612/PubMed CentralArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Muijres, Florian T.0000-0002-5668-0653
Dickinson, Michael H.0000-0002-8587-9936
Additional Information:© 2016 The Author(s). Published by the Royal Society. One contribution of 19 to a theme issue ‘Coevolving advances in animal flight and aerial robotics’. This work was supported by grants (to F.T.M.) from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research, NWO-VENI-863-14-007 (to M.H.D.), the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-10-1-0368) and the Paul G. Allen Family Foundation. Authors' contributions: M.H.D. and F.T.M. designed the experiment and wrote the paper; N.A.I. performed the fruit fly experiments; M.J.E. performed the robotic fly experiments; J.M.M. developed the quasi-steady aerodynamic model. F.T.M. performed the data analysis. We declare we have no competing interests.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)NWO-VENI-863-14-007
Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR)FA9550-10-1-0368
Paul G. Allen Family FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Drosophila, aerodynamics, biomechanics, flapping flight, flight control
Issue or Number:1
PubMed Central ID:PMC5206612
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170213-124118184
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20170213-124118184
Official Citation:Flies compensate for unilateral wing damage through modular adjustments of wing and body kinematics Florian T. Muijres, Nicole A. Iwasaki, Michael J. Elzinga, Johan M. Melis, Michael H. Dickinson Interface Focus 2017 7 20160103; DOI: 10.1098/rsfs.2016.0103. Published 16 December 2016
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:74247
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:13 Feb 2017 21:19
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 16:36

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