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A Computational Model Relating Structure and Reactivity in Enantioselective Oxidations of Secondary Alcohols by (−)-Sparteine−Pd^(II) Complexes

Nielsen, Robert J. and Keith, Jason M. and Stoltz, Brian M. and Goddard, William A., III (2004) A Computational Model Relating Structure and Reactivity in Enantioselective Oxidations of Secondary Alcohols by (−)-Sparteine−Pd^(II) Complexes. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 126 (25). pp. 7967-7974. ISSN 0002-7863. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20170215-152829202

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Abstract

The key interactions responsible for the unique reactivity of (−)-sparteine−PdX_2 complexes (X = chloride, acetate) in the enantioselective oxidation of secondary alcohols have been elucidated using quantum mechanics (B3LYP DFT with the PBF polarizable continuum solvent model). From examining many possible pathways, we find the mechanism involves:  (1) substitution of the alcohol in place of an X-group, (2) deprotonation of the bound alcohol by the deposed anion and free sparteine, (3) β-hydride elimination through a four-coordinate transition state in which the second anion is displaced but tightly associated, (4) replacement of the ketone product with the associated anion. The enantioselectivities observed under base-rich reaction conditions follow directly from calculated energies of diastereomeric β-hydride elimination transition states incorporating (R) and (S) substrates. This relationship reveals an important role of the anion, namely to communicate the steric interaction of the ligand on one side of the PdII square plane and the substrate on the other side. When no anion is included, no enantioselectivity is predicted. Locating these transition states in different solvents shows that higher dielectrics stabilize the charge separation between the anion and metal and draw the anion farther into solution. Thus, the solvent influences the barrier height (rate) and selectivity of the oxidation.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja031911mDOIArticle
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/ja031911mPublisherSupporting Information
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Nielsen, Robert J.0000-0002-7962-0186
Keith, Jason M.0000-0002-5292-397X
Stoltz, Brian M.0000-0001-9837-1528
Goddard, William A., III0000-0003-0097-5716
Additional Information:© 2004 American Chemical Society. Received 23 December 2003. Published online 4 June 2004. Published in print 1 June 2004. We thank Eric Ferreira, Jeffrey Bagdanoff, Raissa Trend, Julius Su, and Jonas Oxgaard for helpful discussions. J.M.K. thanks the National Science Foundation for financial support. This research was partly funded by the NSF (CTS-01322002), ChevronTexaco, and the NIH-NIGMS (R01 GM65961-01), and the facilities used were funded by grants from ARO-DURIP, ONR- DURIP, IBM-SUR, and the Beckman Institute. All calculations were performed with Jaguar 4.0 and Jaguar 5.0.35
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFCTS-01322002
Chevron TexacoUNSPECIFIED
NIHR01GM65961-01
Army Research Office (ARO)UNSPECIFIED
Office of Naval Research (ONR)UNSPECIFIED
IBMUNSPECIFIED
Caltech Beckman InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:25
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170215-152829202
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20170215-152829202
Official Citation:A Computational Model Relating Structure and Reactivity in Enantioselective Oxidations of Secondary Alcohols by (−)-Sparteine−PdII Complexes Robert J. Nielsen, Jason M. Keith, Brian M. Stoltz, and William A. Goddard, III Journal of the American Chemical Society 2004 126 (25), 7967-7974 DOI: 10.1021/ja031911m
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:74343
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:16 Feb 2017 00:29
Last Modified:15 Jun 2020 20:14

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