A Caltech Library Service

Optical Phase Conjugation with Less Than a Photon per Degree of Freedom

Jang, M. and Yang, C. and Vellekoop, I. M. (2017) Optical Phase Conjugation with Less Than a Photon per Degree of Freedom. Physical Review Letters, 118 (9). Art. No. 093902. ISSN 0031-9007. PMCID PMC5508849.

[img] PDF - Published Version
See Usage Policy.

[img] PDF - Accepted Version
See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


We demonstrate experimentally that optical phase conjugation can be used to focus light through strongly scattering media even when far less than a photon per optical degree of freedom is detected. We found that the best achievable intensity contrast is equal to the total number of detected photons, as long as the resolution of the system is high enough. Our results demonstrate that phase conjugation can be used even when the photon budget is extremely low, such as in high-speed focusing through dynamic media or imaging deep inside tissue.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper InPhysics: Focus Story CentralArticle
Yang, C.0000-0001-8791-0354
Additional Information:© 2017 American Physical Society. Received 5 October 2016; published 3 March 2017. We thank Haowen Ruan for help on the experiment. This work is supported by the National Institutes of Health (1DP2OD007307-01), the National Institutes of Health BRAIN Initiative (1U01NS090577-01), and a GIST-Caltech Collaborative Research Proposal (CG2012). I. M. V. is supported by the European Research Council under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Program/ERC Grant Agreement No. [678919].
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Research Council (ERC)678919
Issue or Number:9
PubMed Central ID:PMC5508849
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170303-084226860
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:74681
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:03 Mar 2017 16:49
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

Repository Staff Only: item control page