A Caltech Library Service

(Sub)millimetre interferometric imaging of a sample of COSMOS/AzTEC submillimetre galaxies. III. Environments

Smolčić, V. and Miettinen, O. and Tomičić, N. and Zamorani, G. and Finoguenov, A. and Lemaux, B. C. and Aravena, M. and Capak, P. and Chiang, Y.-K. and Civano, F. and Delvecchio, I. and Ilbert, O. and Jurlin, N. and Karim, A. and Laigle, C. and Le Fèvre, O. and Marchesi, S. and McCracken, H. J. and Riechers, D. A. and Salvato, M. and Schinnerer, E. and Tasca, L. and Toft, S. (2017) (Sub)millimetre interferometric imaging of a sample of COSMOS/AzTEC submillimetre galaxies. III. Environments. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 597 . Art. No. A4. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201526989.

[img] PDF - Published Version
See Usage Policy.

[img] PDF - Submitted Version
See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


We investigate the environment of 23 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) drawn from a signal-to-noise (S/N)-limited sample of SMGs originally discovered in the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT)/AzTEC 1.1 mm continuum survey of a Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) subfield and then followed up with the Submillimetre Array and Plateau de Bure Interferometer at 890 μm and 1.3 mm, respectively. These SMGs already have well-defined multiwavelength counterparts and redshifts. We also analyse the environments of four COSMOS SMGs spectroscopically confirmed to lie at redshifts z_(spec) > 4.5, and one at z_(spec) = 2.49 resulting in a total SMG sample size of 28. We search for overdensities using the COSMOS photometric redshifts based on over 30 UV-NIR photometric measurements including the new UltraVISTA data release 2 and Spitzer/SPLASH data, and reaching an accuracy of σ_(Δz/ (1 + z)) = 0.0067 (0.0155) at z < 3.5 (>3.5). To identify overdensities we apply the Voronoi tessellation analysis, and estimate the redshift-space overdensity estimator δ_g as a function of distance from the SMG and/or overdensity centre. We test and validate our approach via simulations, X-ray detected groups or clusters, and spectroscopic verifications using VUDS and zCOSMOS catalogues which show that even with photometric redshifts in the COSMOS field we can efficiently retrieve overdensities out to z ≈ 5. Our results yield that 11 out of 23 (48%) JCMT/AzTEC 1.1 mm SMGs occupy overdense environments. Considering the entire JCMT/AzTEC 1.1 mm S/N ≥ 4 sample and taking the expected fraction of spurious detections into account, this means that 35–61% of the SMGs in the S/N-limited sample occupy overdense environments. We perform an X-ray stacking analysis in the 0.5–2 keV band using a 32″ aperture and our SMG positions, and find statistically significant detections. For our z < 2 subsample we find an average flux of (4.0 ± 0.8) × 10^(-16) erg s^(-1) cm^(-2) and a corresponding total mass of M_(200) = 2.8 × 10^(13)M⊙. The z > 2 subsample yields an average flux of (1.3 ± 0.5) × 10^(-16) erg s^(-1) cm^(-2) and a corresponding total massof M_(200) = 2 × 10^(13)M⊙. Our results suggest a higher occurrence of SMGs occupying overdense environments at z ≥ 3 than at z < 3. This may be understood if highly star-forming galaxies can only be formed in the highest peaks of the density field tracing the most massive dark matter haloes at early cosmic epochs, while at later times cosmic structure may have matured sufficiently that more modest overdensities correspond to sufficiently massive haloes to form SMGs.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Smolčić, V.0000-0002-3893-8614
Finoguenov, A.0000-0002-4606-5403
Lemaux, B. C.0000-0002-1428-7036
Aravena, M.0000-0002-6290-3198
Capak, P.0000-0003-3578-6843
Civano, F.0000-0002-2115-1137
Delvecchio, I.0000-0001-8706-2252
Ilbert, O.0000-0002-7303-4397
Karim, A.0000-0002-8414-9579
Le Fèvre, O.0000-0001-5891-2596
Marchesi, S.0000-0001-5544-0749
McCracken, H. J.0000-0002-9489-7765
Riechers, D. A.0000-0001-9585-1462
Salvato, M.0000-0001-7116-9303
Schinnerer, E.0000-0002-3933-7677
Toft, S.0000-0003-3631-7176
Additional Information:© 2016 ESO. Received: 17 July 2015; Accepted: 4 April 2016; Published online 19 December 2016. This research was funded by the European Union’s Seventh Framework programme under grant agreement 337595 (ERC Starting Grant, “CoSMass”). A.F. wishes to acknowledge Finnish Academy award, decision 266918. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHYS-1066293 and the hospitality of the Aspen Center for Physics. This work is partly based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under ESO programme ID 179.A-2005 and and 185.A-0791 and on data products produced by TERAPIX and the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit on behalf of the UltraVISTA consortium. This research has made use of NASA’s Astrophysics Data System, and the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive, which is operated by the JPL, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the NASA. We greatfully acknowledge the contributions of the entire COSMOS collaboration consisting of more than 100 scientists. More information on the COSMOS survey is available at We thank the VUDS team for making the data in the COSMOS field available prior to public release.
Group:COSMOS, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), SPLASH
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Research Council (ERC)337595
Academy of Finland266918
Subject Keywords:galaxies: clusters: general – galaxies: evolution – galaxies: formation – large-scale structure of Universe – submillimeter: galaxies
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170310-101901398
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:(Sub)millimetre interferometric imaging of a sample of COSMOS/AzTEC submillimetre galaxies - III. Environments V. Smolčić, O. Miettinen, N. Tomičić, G. Zamorani, A. Finoguenov, B. C. Lemaux, M. Aravena, P. Capak, Y. -K. Chiang, F. Civano, I. Delvecchio, O. Ilbert, N. Jurlin, A. Karim, C. Laigle, O. Le Fèvre, S. Marchesi, H. J. McCracken, D. A. Riechers, M. Salvato, E. Schinnerer, L. Tasca and S. Toft A&A, 597 (2017) A4 DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:75022
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:10 Mar 2017 19:25
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 16:30

Repository Staff Only: item control page