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Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis of Ozone Nonattainment over the Continental United States

Hakami, Amir and Seinfeld, John H. and Chai, Tianfeng and Tang, Youhua and Carmichael, Gregory R. and Sandu, Adrian (2006) Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis of Ozone Nonattainment over the Continental United States. Environmental Science and Technology, 40 (12). pp. 3855-3864. ISSN 0013-936X. doi:10.1021/es052135g.

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An application of the adjoint method in air quality management is demonstrated. We use a continental scale chemical transport model (STEM) to calculate the sensitivities of a nationwide U.S. ozone national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) nonattainment metric to precursor emissions for the period July 1 to August 15, 2004. The model shows low bias and error (−4 and 24%, respectively), particularly for areas with high ozone concentrations. The nonattainment metric accounts for both 1-h and 8-h ozone standards, but is dominated by the 8-h exceedances (97% of the combined metric). Largest values of sensitivities are found to be with respect to emissions in the south and southeast U.S., Ohio River Valley, and California. When nonattainment sensitivities are integrated over the entire U.S., NOx emissions account for the largest contribution (62% of the total), followed by biogenic and anthropogenic VOCs (24% and 14%, respectively). For NO_x emissions, point/area and mobile sources account for 54% and 46% of the total sensitivities, respectively. We also provide a state-by-state comparison for the nonattainment magnitude, nonattainment sensitivity, and emission magnitudes to explore the influence of interstate transport of ozone and its precursors, and policy implications of the results. Our analysis of the nationwide ozone nonattainment metric suggests that simple cap-and-trade programs may prove inadequate in achieving sought-after air quality objectives.

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Seinfeld, John H.0000-0003-1344-4068
Additional Information:© 2006 American Chemical Society. Received for review October 26, 2005. Revised manuscript received March 20, 2006. Accepted April 5, 2006. Publication Date (Web): May 11, 2006. This work was supported by National Science Foundation award NSF ITR AP&IM 0205198.
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Issue or Number:12
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170315-105316568
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Official Citation:Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis of Ozone Nonattainment over the Continental United States Amir Hakami, John H. Seinfeld, Tianfeng Chai, Youhua Tang, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Adrian Sandu Environmental Science & Technology 2006 40 (12), 3855-3864 DOI: 10.1021/es052135g
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:75143
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:15 Mar 2017 18:08
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 16:31

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