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SPIRITS 15c and SPIRITS 14buu: Two Obscured Supernovae in the Nearby Star-forming Galaxy IC 2163

Jencson, Jacob E. and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Johansson, Joel and Contreras, Carlos and Castellón, Sergio and Bond, Howard E. and Monson, Andrew J. and Masci, Frank J. and Cody, Ann Marie and Andrews, Jennifer E. and Bally, John and Cao, Yi and Fox, Ori D. and Gburek, Timothy and Gehrz, Robert D. and Green, Wayne and Helou, George and Hsiao, Eric and Morrell, Nidia and Phillips, Mark and Prince, Thomas A. and Simcoe, Robert A. and Smith, Nathan and Tinyanont, Samaporn and Williams, Robert (2017) SPIRITS 15c and SPIRITS 14buu: Two Obscured Supernovae in the Nearby Star-forming Galaxy IC 2163. Astrophysical Journal, 837 (2). Art. No. 167. ISSN 1538-4357. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa618f.

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SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey—SPIRITS—is an ongoing survey of nearby galaxies searching for infrared (IR) transients with Spitzer/IRAC. We present the discovery and follow-up observations of one of our most luminous (M_([4.5]) = −17.1 ± 0.4 mag, Vega) and reddest ([3.6] − [4.5] = 3.0 ± 0.2 mag) transients, SPIRITS 15c. The transient was detected in a dusty spiral arm of IC 2163 (D ≈ 35.5 Mpc). Pre-discovery ground-based imaging revealed an associated, shorter-duration transient in the optical and near-IR (NIR). NIR spectroscopy showed a broad (≈8400 km s^(−1)), double-peaked emission line of He I at 1.083 μm, indicating an explosive origin. The NIR spectrum of SPIRITS 15c is similar to that of the Type IIb SN 2011dh at a phase of ≈200 days. Assuming an A_V = 2.2 mag of extinction in SPIRITS 15c provides a good match between their optical light curves. The NIR light curves, however, show some minor discrepancies when compared with SN 2011dh, and the extreme [3.6]–[4.5] color has not been previously observed for any SN IIb. Another luminous (M_(4.5) = −16.1 ± 0.4 mag) event, SPIRITS 14buu, was serendipitously discovered in the same galaxy. The source displays an optical plateau lasting ≳80 days, and we suggest a scenario similar to the low-luminosity Type IIP SN 2005cs obscured by A V ≈ 1.5 mag. Other classes of IR-luminous transients can likely be ruled out in both cases. If both events are indeed SNe, this may suggest that ≳18% of nearby core-collapse SNe are missed by currently operating optical surveys.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Jencson, Jacob E.0000-0001-5754-4007
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Johansson, Joel0000-0001-5975-290X
Bond, Howard E.0000-0003-1377-7145
Monson, Andrew J.0000-0002-0048-2586
Masci, Frank J.0000-0002-8532-9395
Cody, Ann Marie0000-0002-3656-6706
Andrews, Jennifer E.0000-0003-0123-0062
Bally, John0000-0001-8135-6612
Cao, Yi0000-0002-8036-8491
Fox, Ori D.0000-0003-2238-1572
Gburek, Timothy0000-0002-7732-9205
Gehrz, Robert D.0000-0003-1319-4089
Helou, George0000-0003-3367-3415
Morrell, Nidia0000-0003-2535-3091
Phillips, Mark0000-0003-2734-0796
Prince, Thomas A.0000-0002-8850-3627
Simcoe, Robert A.0000-0003-3769-9559
Tinyanont, Samaporn0000-0002-1481-4676
Additional Information:© 2017 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2016 September 14; revised 2017 February 14; accepted 2017 February 18; published 2017 March 15. We thank the anonymous referee for the comments that improved the manuscript. We thank M. Kaufman, B. Elmegreen, and the authors of Elmegreen et al. (2016) and Kaufman et al. (2016) for providing Hα, 24 µm, and CO measurements at the location of SPIRITS 15c. We also thank P. Groot, R. Lau, and S. Adams for valuable discussions. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under grant no. DGE-1144469. H.E.B. acknowledges support for this work provided by NASA through grants GO-13935 and GO-14258 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. R.D.G. was supported in part by the United States Air Force. This work makes use of observations from the LCO network. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at LCO, Chile. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. The work is based, in part, on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. Funding for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, and the Participating Institutions. SDSS-IV acknowledges support and resources from the Center for High-Performance Computing at the University of Utah. The SDSS web site is SDSS-IV is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS Collaboration including the Brazilian Participation Group, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Carnegie Mellon University, the Chilean Participation Group, the French Participation Group, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, The Johns Hopkins University, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the universe (IPMU)/University of Tokyo, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Leibniz Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA Heidelberg), Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik (MPA Garching), Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), National Astronomical Observatories of China, New Mexico State University, New York University, University of Notre Dame, Observatário Nacional/MCTI, The Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, United Kingdom Participation Group, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, University of Arizona, University of Colorado Boulder, University of Oxford, University of Portsmouth, University of Utah, University of Virginia, University of Washington, University of Wisconsin, Vanderbilt University, and Yale University.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1144469
NASANAS 5-26555
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Participating InstitutionsUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:supernovae: general – supernovae: individual (SPIRITS 15c, SPIRITS 14buu) – surveys
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170317-110327657
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Jacob E. Jencson et al 2017 ApJ 837 167
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:75202
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:17 Mar 2017 18:21
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 16:31

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