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Characterization of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) emission lines for the identification of chlorides, carbonates, and sulfates in salt/basalt mixtures for the application to MSL ChemCam data

Anderson, D. E. and Ehlmann, B. L. and Forni, O. and Clegg, S. M. and Cousin, A. and Thomas, N. H. and Lasue, J. and Delapp, D. M. and McInroy, R. E. and Gasnault, O. and Dyar, M. D. and Schröder, S. and Maurice, S. and Wiens, R. C. (2017) Characterization of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) emission lines for the identification of chlorides, carbonates, and sulfates in salt/basalt mixtures for the application to MSL ChemCam data. Journal of Geophysical Research. Planets, 122 (4). pp. 744-770. ISSN 2169-9097. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20170320-111028651

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Abstract

Ancient environmental conditions on Mars can be probed through the identification of minerals on its surface, including water-deposited salts and cements dispersed in the pore space of sedimentary rocks. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analyses by the Martian rover Curiosity's ChemCam instrument can indicate salts, and ChemCam surveys aid in identifying and selecting sites for further, detailed in situ analyses. We performed laboratory LIBS experiments under simulated Mars conditions with a ChemCam-like instrument on a series of mixtures containing increasing concentrations of salt in a basaltic background to investigate the potential for identifying and quantifying chloride, carbonate, and sulfate salts found only in small amounts, dispersed in bulk rock with ChemCam, rather than concentrated in veins. Data indicate that the presence of emission lines from the basalt matrix limited the number of Cl, C, and S emission lines found to be useful for quantitative analysis; nevertheless, several lines with intensities sensitive to salt concentration were identified. Detection limits for the elements based on individual emission lines ranged from ~20 wt % carbonate (2 wt % C), ~5–30 wt % sulfate (1–8 wt % S), and ~5–10 wt % chloride (3–6 wt % Cl) depending on the basaltic matrix and/or salt cation. Absolute quantification of Cl, C, and S in the samples via univariate analysis depends on the cation-anion pairing in the salt but appears relatively independent of matrices tested, following normalization. These results are promising for tracking relative changes in the salt content of bulk rock on the Martian surface with ChemCam.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2016JE005164DOIArticle
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JE005164/abstractPublisherArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Anderson, D. E.0000-0002-8310-0554
Ehlmann, B. L.0000-0002-2745-3240
Forni, O.0000-0001-6772-9689
Clegg, S. M.0000-0002-0338-0948
Cousin, A.0000-0001-7823-7794
Thomas, N. H.0000-0003-1989-4860
Lasue, J.0000-0001-9082-4457
Delapp, D. M.0000-0002-2514-337X
Gasnault, O.0000-0002-6979-9012
Dyar, M. D.0000-0003-4272-793X
Schröder, S.0000-0003-1870-3663
Wiens, R. C.0000-0002-3409-7344
Additional Information:©2017. The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. Received 1 SEP 2016; Accepted 13 MAR 2017; Accepted article online 20 MAR 2017; Published online 24 APR 2017. Thanks to Mike Baker for supplying the K1919 end-member and George Rossman for end-member acquisition advice. Thanks to the entire MSL ChemCam team for feedback throughout this project. Thanks to the anonymous reviewers for their valuable suggestions that have improved this document. This work was supported by a NASA MSL Participating Scientist Program grant to B.L. Ehlmann, a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under grant DGE-11444469 to D.E. Anderson, and by contract from NASA's Mars Exploration Program to R.C. Wiens and S.M. Clegg. Supporting data are included as supporting information; any additional information may be obtained from D.E. Anderson (e-mail: deanders@caltech.edu).
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASAUNSPECIFIED
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-11444469
Subject Keywords:LIBS spectroscopy; carbon; chlorine; sulfur; salts; Mars Science Laboratory
Issue or Number:4
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170320-111028651
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20170320-111028651
Official Citation:Anderson, D. E., et al. (2017), Characterization of LIBS emission lines for the identification of chlorides, carbonates, and sulfates in salt/basalt mixtures for the application to MSL ChemCam data, J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 122, 744–770, doi:10.1002/2016JE005164
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:75242
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:27 Mar 2017 16:15
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 16:48

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