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Genetically engineered mice with an additional class of cone photoreceptors: Implications for the evolution of color vision

Smallwood, Philip M. and Ölveczky, Bence P. and Williams, Gary L. and Jacobs, Gerald H. and Reese, Benjamin E. and Meister, Markus and Nathans, Jeremy (2003) Genetically engineered mice with an additional class of cone photoreceptors: Implications for the evolution of color vision. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100 (20). pp. 11706-11711. ISSN 0027-8424. PMCID PMC208822. doi:10.1073/pnas.1934712100.

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Among eutherian mammals, only primates possess trichromatic color vision. In Old World primates, trichromacy was made possible by a visual pigment gene duplication. In most New World primates, trichromacy is based on polymorphic variation in a single X-linked gene that produces, by random X inactivation, a patchy mosaic of spectrally distinct cone photoreceptors in heterozygous females. In the present work, we have modeled the latter strategy in a nonprimate by replacing the X-linked mouse green pigment gene with one encoding the human red pigment. In the mouse retina, the human red pigment seems to function normally, and heterozygous female mice express the human red and mouse green pigments at levels that vary between animals. Multielectrode array recordings from heterozygous female retinas reveal significant variation in the chromatic sensitivities of retinal ganglion cells. The data are consistent with a model in which these retinal ganglion cells draw their inputs indiscriminately from a coarse-grained mosaic of red and green cones. These observations support the ideas that (i) chromatic signals could arise from stochastic variation in inputs drawn nonselectively from red and green cones and (ii) tissue mosaicism due to X chromosome inactivation could be one mechanism for driving the evolution of CNS diversity.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription CentralArticle
Meister, Markus0000-0003-2136-6506
Additional Information:© 2003 National Academy of Sciences. Contributed by Jeremy Nathans, July 25, 2003. Published online before print September 19, 2003. We thank the Johns Hopkins University Transgenic Core Laboratory for blastocyst injections, Ms. Jennifer Macke and Dr. Edward Soucy for assistance during the early phases of this work, Dr. Yanshu Wang for advice, and an anonymous reviewer for helpful comments. This work was supported by the c (P.M.S. and J.N.) and the National Eye Institute [B.P.Ö., M.M., G.H.J. (Grant EY002052), and B.E.R.].
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI)UNSPECIFIED
National Eye InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:20
PubMed Central ID:PMC208822
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170405-113339851
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Official Citation:Genetically engineered mice with an additional class of cone photoreceptors: Implications for the evolution of color vision Philip M. Smallwood, Bence P. Ölveczky, Gary L. Williams, Gerald H. Jacobs, Benjamin E. Reese, Markus Meister, and Jeremy Nathans PNAS 2003 100 (20) 11706-11711; published ahead of print September 19, 2003, doi:10.1073/pnas.1934712100
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:75736
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:05 Apr 2017 18:57
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 16:36

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