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Hourglass Arrays, and Other Novel 2-D Sparse Arrays with Reduced Mutual Coupling

Liu, Chun-Lin and Vaidyanathan, P. P. (2017) Hourglass Arrays, and Other Novel 2-D Sparse Arrays with Reduced Mutual Coupling. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 65 (13). pp. 3369-3383. ISSN 1053-587X.

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Linear [one-dimensional (1-D)] sparse arrays such as nested arrays and minimum redundancy arrays have hole-free difference coarrays with O(N^2) virtual sensor elements, where N is the number of physical sensors. The hole-free property makes it easier to perform beamforming and DOA estimation in the coarray domain which behaves like an uniform linear array. The O(N^2) property implies that O(N^2) uncorrelated sources can be identified. For the 2-D case, planar sparse arrays with hole-free coarrays having O(N^2) elements have also been known for a long time. These include billboard arrays, open box arrays (OBA), and 2-D nested arrays. Their merits are similar to those of the 1-D sparse arrays mentioned above, although identifiability claims regarding O(N^2) sources have to be handled with more care in 2-D. This paper introduces new planar sparse arrays with hole-free coarrays having O(N^2) elements just like the OBA, with the additional property that the number of sensor pairs with small spacings such as λ/2 decreases, reducing the effect of mutual coupling. The new arrays include half-open box arrays, half-open box arrays with two layers, and hourglass arrays. Among these, simulations show that hourglass arrays have the best estimation performance in presence of mutual coupling.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription
Liu, Chun-Lin0000-0003-3135-9684
Vaidyanathan, P. P.0000-0003-3003-7042
Additional Information:© 2017 IEEE. Manuscript received August 23, 2016; revised February 17, 2017; accepted March 15, 2017. Date of publication April 3, 2017; date of current version April 27, 2017. The associate editor coordinating the review of this manuscript and approving it for publication was Dr. Fauzia Ahmad. This work was supported in part by the ONR Grant N00014-15-1-2118, in part by California Institute of Technology, and in part by the Taiwan/Caltech Ministry of Education Fellowship. This paper was presented at the Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, Pacific Grove, CA, USA, November 6–9, 2016.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Office of Naval Research (ONR)N00014-15-1-2118
Ministry of Education (Taipei)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Nonseparable 2D sparse arrays, open box arrays, hourglass arrays, mutual coupling, DOA estimation
Issue or Number:13
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170405-151504238
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Official Citation:C. L. Liu and P. P. Vaidyanathan, "Hourglass Arrays and Other Novel 2-D Sparse Arrays With Reduced Mutual Coupling," in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 65, no. 13, pp. 3369-3383, July1, 1 2017. doi: 10.1109/TSP.2017.2690390 URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:75749
Deposited By: Kristin Buxton
Deposited On:05 Apr 2017 22:57
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

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