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Mass inventory of the giant-planet formation zone in a solar nebula analogue

Zhang, Ke and Bergin, Edwin A. and Blake, Geoffrey A. and Cleeves, L. Ilsedore and Schwarz, Kamber R. (2017) Mass inventory of the giant-planet formation zone in a solar nebula analogue. Nature Astronomy, 1 . Art. No. 0130. ISSN 2397-3366. doi:10.1038/s41550-017-0130.

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The initial mass distribution in the solar nebula is a critical input to planet formation models that seek to reproduce today’s Solar System. Traditionally, constraints on the gas mass distribution are derived from observations of the dust emission from disks, but this approach suffers from large uncertainties in dust opacity and gas-to-dust ratio. On the other hand, previous observations of gas tracers only probe surface layers above the bulk mass reservoir. Here we present the first partially spatially resolved observations of the ^(13)C^(18)O J = 3–2 line emission in the closest protoplanetary disk, TW Hydrae, a gas tracer that probes the bulk mass distribution. Combining it with the C^(18)O J = 3–2 emission and the previously detected HD J = 1–0 flux, we directly constrain the mid-plane temperature and optical depths of gas and dust emission. We report a gas mass distribution with radius, R, of 13^(+8)_(–5)×(R/20.5au)^(–0.9^(+0.4)_(–0.3)) g cm^(−2) in the expected formation zone of gas and ice giants (5–21 au). We find that the mass ratio of total gas to millimetre-sized dust is 140 in this region, suggesting that at least 2.4M_⊕ of dust aggregates have grown to centimetre sizes (and perhaps much larger). The radial distribution of gas mass is consistent with a self-similar viscous disk profile but much flatter than the posterior extrapolation of mass distribution in our own and extrasolar planetary systems.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription ReadCube access Paper
Zhang, Ke0000-0002-0661-7517
Bergin, Edwin A.0000-0003-4179-6394
Blake, Geoffrey A.0000-0003-0787-1610
Cleeves, L. Ilsedore0000-0003-2076-8001
Schwarz, Kamber R.0000-0002-6429-9457
Alternate Title:Mass inventory of the giant-planet formation zone in a solar nebula analog
Additional Information:© 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. Received: 14 September 2016; Accepted: 06 April 2017; Published online: 15 May 2017. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2015.1.00308.S. ALMA is a partnership of the European Southern Observatory (ESO, representing its member states), National Science Foundation (NSF, United States) and National Institutes of Natural Sciences (Japan), together with the National Research Council (Canada), the National Science Council and Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Taiwan), and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, Associated Universities Inc./National Radio Astronomy Observatory, and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. We thank T. Tsukagoshi for sharing radial brightness temperature profiles of ALMA 145 and 233-GHz continuum observations of the TW Hya disk. This work was supported by funding from NSF grant AST-1514670 and NASA NNX16AB48G. L.I.C. acknowledges the support of NASA through Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51356.001. Author Contributions: K.Z. led the data processing, analysis and manuscript preparation. E.A.B. led the preparation of the observing proposal, and K.R.S. assisted with the parameterized modelling. All authors were participants in elaborating the observing proposal, discussion of results, determination of the conclusions and revision of the manuscript. The authors declare no competing financial interests.
Group:Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-HF2-51356.001
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170406-111415162
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Official Citation:Zhang, K., Bergin, E. A., Blake, G. A., Cleeves, L. I. & Schwarz, K. R. Mass inventory of the giant-planet formation zone in a solar nebula analogue. Nat. Astron. 1, 0130 (2017)
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:75805
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:15 May 2017 19:53
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 16:36

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