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Validation of the effect of cross-calibrated GOES solar proton effective energies on derived integral fluxes by comparison with STEREO observations

Rodriguez, J. V. and Sandberg, I. and Mewaldt, R. A. and Daglis, I. A. and Jiggens, P. (2017) Validation of the effect of cross-calibrated GOES solar proton effective energies on derived integral fluxes by comparison with STEREO observations. Space Weather, 15 (2). pp. 290-309. ISSN 1542-7390. doi:10.1002/2016SW001533.

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The derivation of integral fluxes from instrument coincidence rates requires accurate knowledge of their effective energies. Recent cross calibrations of GOES with the high-energy-resolution Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (IMP) 8 Goddard Medium Energy Experiment (GME) (Sandberg et al., Geophys. Res. Lett, 41, 4435, 2014a) gave significantly lower effective energies than those currently used by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center to calculate solar proton integral fluxes from GOES rates. This implies systematically lower integral fluxes than currently produced. This paper quantifies the differences between the current and the cross-calibrated GOES integral fluxes and validates the latter. Care is taken to rule out the spectral resolution of the measurements or different integration algorithms as major contributors to differences in the magnitudes of the derived integral fluxes. The lower effective energies are validated by comparison with the independent, high-resolution observations by the STEREO Low-Energy Telescope (LET) and High-Energy Telescope (HET) during the December 2006 solar proton events. The current GOES product is similar to the >10 MeV integral fluxes recalculated by using the Sandberg et al. [2014a] effective energies but is substantially greater at higher energies. (The median ratios of the current to the recalculated fluxes are 1.1 at >10 MeV, 1.7 at >30 MeV, 2.1 at >60 MeV, and 2.9 at >100 MeV.) By virtue of this validation, the cross-calibrated GOES integral fluxes should be considered more accurate than the current NOAA product. The results of this study also demonstrate good consistency between the two long-term IMP 8 GME and STEREO LET and HET solar proton data sets.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Rodriguez, J. V.0000-0002-6847-4136
Mewaldt, R. A.0000-0003-2178-9111
Daglis, I. A.0000-0002-0764-3442
Jiggens, P.0000-0003-4755-3561
Additional Information:© 2016. The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. Received 14 SEP 2016. Accepted 8 DEC 2016. Accepted article online 13 DEC 2016. Published online 2 FEB 2017. The work at CIRES was supported in part by the GOES-R program through the Cooperative Agreement with NOAA, and in part by NSF award AGS-1024701 to the University of Colorado. Part of this work was supported by ESA/ESTEC through contract 4000112863/14/NL/HB in the framework of HERMES project. The work at Caltech was supported by NASA under grant NNX11AO75G, and subcontract 00008864 of grant NNX15AG09G. The SEPEM RDS v2.0 is available for download at The GOES data are available from the National Centers for Environmental Information at The STEREO data may be requested from the authors. The OMNI data set is available from NASA's Space Physics Data Facility. We thank C. Clark for digitizing all the World Data Center A Solar-Geophysical Data and Upper Atmosphere Geophysics Reports ( and making them readily accessible. The SWPC list of large >10 MeV SPEs is available at and at We thank D. Hartley for his density-plot routines and the reviewers for their constructive comments on the original manuscript.
Group:Space Radiation Laboratory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)UNSPECIFIED
European Space Agency (ESA)4000112863/14/NL/HB
European Space Research and Technology CentreUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:solar energetic particles; STEREO; GOES; IMP 8 GME
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170407-131410048
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Rodriguez, J. V., I. Sandberg, R. A. Mewaldt, I. A. Daglis, and P. Jiggens (2017), Validation of the effect of cross-calibrated GOES solar proton effective energies on derived integral fluxes by comparison with STEREO observations, Space Weather, 15, 290–309, doi:10.1002/2016SW001533.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:75851
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:07 Apr 2017 20:50
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 16:55

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