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Influence of the Carbon Nanotube Probe Tilt Angle on the Effective Probe Stiffness and Image Quality in Tapping-Mode Atomic Force Microscopy

Solares, Santiago D. and Matsuda, Yuki and Goddard, William A., III (2005) Influence of the Carbon Nanotube Probe Tilt Angle on the Effective Probe Stiffness and Image Quality in Tapping-Mode Atomic Force Microscopy. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 109 (35). pp. 16658-16664. ISSN 1520-6106. doi:10.1021/jp052758g. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20170408-142430312

[img] PDF (Comparison of force curves between single-wall carbon nanotube and Si tips of comparable radius, force curves for single-, double- and triple-wall carbon nanotube probes, cantilever oscillation dynamics for Ao = 20 nm, and analysis of tip deformation mode) - Supplemental Material
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[img] PDF (Comparison of force curves between single-wall carbon nanotube and Si tips of comparable radius, force curves for single-, double- and triple-wall carbon nanotube probes, cantilever oscillation dynamics for Ao = 20 nm, and analysis of tip deformation mode) - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.

291kB

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Abstract

Previous studies have shown that when using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as tapping-mode AFM probes, their tilt angle with respect to vertical (denoted φ) must be close to 0° to obtain high-quality images and that very poor images are obtained for φ > 30°. Here we present a quantitative theoretical investigation of the effect of φ on tapping-mode AFM imaging for single-wall and multiwall nanotube (SWNT and MWNT, respectively) probes of diameters 3.4−5.5 nm and aspect ratio 7.5, which have been found ideal for imaging via TEM. Using molecular and classical dynamics, we investigate the effect of φ on CNT probe stiffness (quantified through the maximum gradient of the tip−sample interaction force) and show that it decreases linearly with increasing φ, becoming negligible at around φ ≈ 40°, thus confirming the conclusions of previous studies. We find that MWNT probe stiffness is proportional to the number of walls, but that the difference in stiffness between SWNTs and MWNTs also decreases linearly with increasing φ and becomes negligible at around φ ≈ 40°. The simulated cross-sectional scans of a sample SWNT using two different values of φ show that the image can be distorted and shifted laterally when φ is large, in some cases giving measured heights appreciably greater than the sample dimensions. We show analytically that the tip−sample forces that occur during imaging can be significantly lower when CNT probes are used instead of conventional probes, even in the absence of buckling, and that they can be further reduced by increasing φ. On the basis of this result, we propose the design of free-standing kinked probes for the characterization of sensitive samples, whereby the probe approaches the sample at a vertical orientation and possesses a tilted section that regulates the tip−sample interaction forces.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp052758gDOIArticle
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/jp052758gPublisherSupporting Information
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Solares, Santiago D.0000-0003-0895-8160
Goddard, William A., III0000-0003-0097-5716
Additional Information:© 2005 American Chemical Society. Received: May 25, 2005; In Final Form: July 11, 2005. Publication Date (Web): August 9, 2005. We gratefully acknowledge the contribution of Professor Konstantinos P. Giapis to the probe designs shown in Figure 2 and of Lawrence A. Wade and Professor C. Patrick Collier in revising and discussing the manuscript.
Issue or Number:35
DOI:10.1021/jp052758g
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170408-142430312
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20170408-142430312
Official Citation:Influence of the Carbon Nanotube Probe Tilt Angle on the Effective Probe Stiffness and Image Quality in Tapping-Mode Atomic Force Microscopy Santiago D. Solares, Yuki Matsuda, and William A. Goddard III The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2005 109 (35), 16658-16664 DOI: 10.1021/jp052758g
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:75937
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: 1Science Import
Deposited On:21 Apr 2017 18:41
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 16:56

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